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標題: 溫度及飼育密度對白斑蛾蚋族群增長之影響
Effect of temperature and rearing density on demography of Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae)
作者: 鍾閔旭
Ming-Hsu Chung
關鍵字: 白斑蛾蚋;兩性生命表;群體飼育;溫度;飼育密度;Clogmia albipunctata;two sex life table;group-rearing;temperature;rearing density
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白斑蛾蚋 (Clogmia albipunctata)為雙翅目蛾蚋科 (Diptera, Psychodidae)之昆蟲,常於室內衛浴設施及室外下水道、汙水槽等環境中群聚生長。此衛生環境害蟲之研究資料以研究其分類及分布調查為主,甚少生態相關研究,故本研究以兩性生命表理論進行白斑蛾蚋族群特性之分析,並以群體生命表分析不同幼蟲密度及環境溫度對其族群增長之影響。於個體生命表中,可得知100粒卵可發育成42隻蛾蚋成蟲,幼蟲平均發育時間為18.5日,雌、雄成蟲平均壽命分別為8.8及7.2日,雌成蟲的平均產卵時間與平均產卵量為2.7日及338.2粒卵;族群介量部分,內在增殖率 (intrinsic rate of increase, r)、終極增殖率 (finite rate of increase, λ)及淨繁殖率 (net reproductive rate, R0)分別為0.2079 d-1、1.2310 d-1、74.4子代/個體。於不同幼蟲密度群體生命表中,內在增殖率、終極增殖率及淨繁殖率隨幼蟲密度增加而顯著減少,平均世代時間 (mean generation time, T)則隨幼蟲密度增加而顯著增加。不同溫度群體生命表中,於低溫 (15℃)及室溫 (25℃)環境下,內在增殖率、終極增殖率及平均世代時間隨溫度增加而顯著減少,淨繁殖率則無顯著差異;高溫 (35℃)環境下則蛾蚋無法完成生活史。本研究建立白斑蛾蚋之生命周期及族群特性數據,可為管理策略擬定及生態研究之參考資料。

The moth flies, Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae), often cluster and grow in the environments of indoor bathroom facilities, outdoor sewer and sewage tank. Previous researches mainly focused on the taxonomy and distribution of this sanitation pest, and there were few researches for the ecology. Hence, we conducted this ecological study with two-sex life table theory to analyze the demographic characteristics of C. albipunctata with individual-reared life table. On the other hand, we evaluated the effects of rearing densities and environmental temperatures on the population increase rate by using group-reared life table. In individual life table trial, 42 adults developed from 100 eggs, mean pre-adult duration was 18.5 day, female and male mean longevity was 8.8 and 7.2 day, respectively. The mean oviposition period and mean fecundity were 2.7 day and 338.2 eggs per female. In population parameters, intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ) and the net reproductive rate (R0) of C. albipunctata was 0.2079 d-1、1.2310 d-1、74.4 offspring/individual, respectively. In group-reared life table at different larval densities, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and the net reproductive rate were significantly decreasing as the larval densities increasing. Furthermore, mean generation time (T) was significantly increased when the larval densities increased. In group-reared life table at low temperature (15℃) and ambient temperature (25℃), intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and the mean generation time were significantly decreased when the temperature increased, but the net reproductive rate was not significantly difference when the temperature increased. In addition, C. albipunctata could not complete the life circle at high temperature (35℃). Data in this study can construct the life cycle and population parameters of C. albipunctata and this basic information may be useful to the management strategy and ecology.
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