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Adult Paederus beetle overcomes water loss with increased total body water content, energy metabolite storage, and reduced cuticular permeability: Age, sex-specific and mating status desiccation related traits
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紅胸隱翅蟲(Paederus fuscipes Curtis)廣泛分佈於熱帶至溫帶地區，其體液中所含毒素為隱翅蟲皮膚炎之致病因子。由於紅胸隱翅蟲適應各種生物地理區域，因此對於應對乾燥脅迫的能力至關重要。為了探討紅胸隱翅蟲在乾燥情況下生存的抗旱策略，我們測定了紅胸隱翅蟲成蟲的水分生理以及減少乾燥壓力的策略。本研究涵蓋以下三項因子：年齡，性別和交配狀況之成蟲面臨乾燥脅迫下的比較。為了減少乾燥脅迫，一日齡成蟲，具有較高水含量使其對於水分損失具有較高耐受性（雌蟲：41.67±2.04％，雄蟲：57.38±5.12%）。該結果也同時說明紅胸隱翅蟲具有性別上的生理差異特性，相較於雄性，雌性具有較高的含水量（雌蟲：82.01±1.84％，雄蟲：69.39±2.25%），在到達死亡臨界點之前能容忍更多的水損失，因此在面臨乾燥脅迫下具有較佳的存活率。但依據本篇結果，對於表皮滲透性及失水率，配對或沒有配對的成蟲並無顯著差異。而能量代謝物方面，一日齡新生的紅胸隱翅蟲具有高海藻糖濃度以忍受乾燥狀態；六週齡以及六週齡後的老齡成蟲降低表皮滲透性，並同步增加表皮脂質含量。儘管如此，葡萄糖和肝糖含量在大多數不同年齡成蟲都是十分重要的，經由增加水蒸氣吸收和代謝水來補償水分流失，相反，黑化對紅胸隱翅蟲的乾燥耐受性（黑化程度= 1）的影響並不顯著。綜合以上結果表明，紅胸隱翅蟲成蟲透過多種抗旱策略共同降低乾燥脅迫和增加失水耐受性來防止水分流失。
Rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), the causative agent of dermatitis linearis, is reportedly to distribute from tropical to temperate regions. The capability of Paederus beetle to resist desiccation stress is vital to adapt to a wide range of biogeographic regions. To understand the strategies allowing these beetles to survive under dehydration situation, we examined the water relations of adult rove beetle and the mechanisms to reduce the stress of drying at different age, sex and mating status. In response to reduce desiccation stress, as for 1-day-old beetles, % TBW content was at an exceptionally high level (female: 82.01±1.84%, male: 69.39±2.25) and tolerated losing a high portion (female: 41.67±2.04%, male: 57.38±5.12) of their % TBW lost. This result also showed sex-specific trait indicated that females had better survivorship in response to desiccation stress compared to male as they had more water to lose before reaching the critical point upon mortality. In term of energy metabolite reserves, newly emerged beetles had high trehalose concentration to endure the desiccating state. Aged beetles of 6-week age and onwards reduced cuticular permeability, in which synchronous with increased cuticular lipid content. Nevertheless, glucose and glycogen content were crucial throughout most of adult life span to compensate the water loss via increased water vapor absorption and metabolic water. In contrast, the effect of melanization on the desiccation tolerance of beetles (melanization score = 1) was not significant. The results demonstrate that P. fuscipes adults prevent dehydration by employing multiple mechanisms that collectively reduce desiccation stress and increase dehydration tolerance.
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