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標題: 企業永續性探討:可靠度與需求轉換觀點
Two Studies on Sustainability: Perspectives from Reliability and Demand Switching
作者: 卓訓全
Hsun-Chuan Cho
關鍵字: 永續性;可靠度;小樣本學習;資訊擴散;風險共擔;需求轉換;外包策略;sustainability;reliability;small dataset;information diffusion;risk-pooling;demand switching;outsourcing strategies
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本研究的具體成果包含(1)運用多元迴歸分析、小樣本數據擴散模擬、類神經網絡方法,建立一個多可靠度目標下混合小樣本數據擴散模擬方法(MOMD),分析最佳的零件設計參數,提升產品的可靠度。(2)使用寄售(consignment stock)與競標(competitive bidding)兩種方法來做存貨的控管,透過各種不同的需求變化情景,用數學模型驗證外包及需求轉換做法,可以產生風險共擔效應,同時降低廢品率及退貨率。本研究用具體的實際案例及數據分析,驗證了研究方法的實用價值,並說明了本研究可提供一個更好的管理方法,協助企業提高產品可靠性、降低售後保固成本、廢品及退貨等成本損失,促進企業經營在產品及供應鏈的永續性。

Sustainability as a policy concept and is a popular research topic in the past two decades. The new interpretation of sustainability concept encompassing three dimensions, namely economy, environment and society. This paper proposes how to improve the product sustainability by reducing the cost of return material authorization (RMA), reducing goods leftovers and the cost of return through product design optimization and risk-pooling effects. This research consists of two studies. Study 1 discusses the impact of reliability on product sustainability, which uses small dataset approach with sample data diffusion simulation method modification under multi-reliability objectives. This study focuses on lower recall risk and the cost reduction of RMA with product reliability improvement. Study 2 explores the impact of risk-pooling effects on supply-chain sustainability. This research demonstrates how firms can deal with demand uncertainty through inventory planning and demand switching, which take advantage of the risk-pooling effect and contribute to supply-chain sustainability.
The contributions of this paper include two aspects. First, considering the small datasets, mixed-datasets, and multi-objective condition, a multi-objective mixed-datasets diffusion (MOMD) method is formulated from the original product reliability optimization problem. The multi-objective reliability of product was satisfied in different extreme conditions, and the time and RMA cost savings from the proposed reliability validation lead to product sustainability. Second, considering two types of products and two outsourcing strategies (competitive bidding, and consignment stock under the (Q, R) inventory policy with variable lead times), the study helps determine the appropriate outsourcing strategy when a firm practices demand switching. The outsourcing planning with inventory management strategies can take advantage of the risk-pooling effect, thereby reducing the expired/obsolete rate and achieving supply-chain sustainability. This paper verified the practical value of the research method with specific real cases and data analysis, and shows that this research can provide a better management method to help firms to achieve both product and supply-chain sustainability.
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