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標題: 銀髮族機能性食品開發及食材質地軟化調整技術之研究
Development of functional foods for seniors and study of food texture softening adjustive technology
作者: 劉席綸
Hsi-Lun Liu
關鍵字: 銀髮族;機能性素材;神經保護;預稠化飲品;質地軟化;感官品評;Seniors;Functional ingredient;Neuroprotection;Prethickened beverage;Texture softening;Sensory evaluation
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我國於 2018 年邁入高齡社會,65 歲以上人口比例超過 14%。銀髮族因生理及心理需求,對於食品形態變化需求較高,因此開發符合銀髮族需求、質地及機能性兼具的銀髮友善食品,以及提升銀髮族飲食的品質已成當務之急。本研究分為四部分:第一部分為神經保護性產品之開發,初步篩選具抗氧化及抗醣化潛力之天然食材,評估對神經細胞 (Neuro-2A) 的保護效果,並參考國際吞嚥障礙飲食協會訂定的黏度分級,以食品複合膠體製成蜂蜜狀 (Honey-like, 351–1750 cP) 預稠化機能飲品,並以冷凍乾燥加工技術開發組織結構孔洞化、風味性佳且符合牙口功能不全族群需求之營養休閒食品。第二部分為食材質地軟化調整技術,將肉類及高纖蔬菜利用酵素輔以不同加工條件,開發食材質地軟化調整技術,並參照日本介護食協會 UDF 現有規範,分析其質地物性。第三部分為銀髮族豆製類機能性食品開發,豆類製品質地軟嫩適合作為銀髮食品原料使用,依據直交試驗法優化配方,開發蔬果機能豆腐及高纖豆腐獅子頭。第四部分為探討軟質食品質地於感官品評及物性測定儀分析之相關性,並綜合消費者嗜好性感官品評,評估新產品之消費者接受程度。
(一) 神經保護性產品之開發:初步篩選結果顯示,機能性素材中以柑橘類果皮萃取物能有效提升醣化及氧化壓力下的細胞存活率,具有最佳的神經保護功效。預稠化飲品中以三仙膠及關華豆膠作為椪柑汁及柳橙汁增稠基質,其黏度變化穩定,不受 pH 值及醣分影響,可準確調配黏度,且不影響飲品原有外觀及風味。另以不同乳脂含量的凍乾冰淇淋進行消費者嗜好性感官品評,結果顯示,以 13% 乳脂配方之凍乾冰淇淋整體喜歡程度最佳,質地最為蓬鬆、咀嚼便利,適合開發成銀髮族機能休閒食品。
(二) 開發食材質地軟化調整技術:研究結果顯示,透過酵素處理並輔以不同加工方法增加酵素浸漬程度,可提升食材軟化效果,而不同的食材其組織結構不同,軟化效果亦不同。超音波處理除了可輔助酵素液浸漬食材內部,亦能透過震波破壞肉品組織的完整性,加強肉品軟化效果。根莖類蔬菜與不同禽畜肉分別於酵素濃度 0.5% 及 1% 以上,皆可使食材硬度軟化至 5 × 104 N/m2 以下,於 UDF 規格分級中屬第二級,介於牙齦咀嚼與舌頭可破壞的程度。上述結果顯示,軟化效果與酵素活性及滲透程度有高度相關。
(三) 豆類製品開發:包含蔬果複合型豆腐及高纖豆腐獅子頭兩項,以單因素試驗初步篩選變因範圍,利用直交試驗優化配方並以質地作為指標。結果顯示,豆腐以豆漿固液比 1:4、蔬果汁比例 1:4、葡萄糖酸內酯含量 0.28% 及 pH 值 5.5 之配方,質地等級為 UDF 規格分級第四級,符合銀髮族質地需求及機能性之新穎豆類製品;高纖豆腐獅子頭產品,質地等級為 UDF 規格分級第三級,可提供銀髮族充分之蛋白質,維持身體機能,預防肌少症的發生。
(四) 感官品評:將蔬果複合型豆腐依據儀器分析數據分組進行品評,探討軟質食品於儀器分析與感官品評之相關性。結果顯示,消費者認為產品整體為軟嫩的,但無法明顯區分樣品間的軟硬差異。皮爾森常數的結果顯示,儀器分析與感官品評具中低度正相關性。蔬果複合型豆腐消費者整體接受度高,介於「沒有喜歡及不喜歡」和「稍微喜歡」之間,整體喜歡程度與軟嫩的、舒服的有高相關性。
綜合上述結果,利用儀器分析的物性數據進行規格分級,可做為產品開發的指引及標準,而將機能性素材應用於質地改質食品 (Texture modified food, TMF) 中,可增進吞嚥品質及營養攝取,預防銀髮族身體機能退化及慢性病的罹患。儘管軟質食品豆腐的質地,於儀器分析及感官品評中有差別,但整體上消費者認為具有軟嫩的感受,顯示兩者之間仍具關聯性。

In 2018, the ratio of senior citizens in total population of Taiwan is over 14%, suggesting that Taiwan is going to be aged society. Due to the physiological and mental needs, the seniors have high demand on the diversity of food products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop the food products that meet the needs of the seniors to improve their diet quality. There are four parts in this study. In the first part, the neuroprotective foods for seniors were developed. The natural ingredients with antioxidant and anti-glycation activities were used to evaluate their effects on Neuro-2A protection. The food products were developed by referring the specification of International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative to produce honey like prethickened functional beverage with hydrocolloid formula as well as by freeze-drying processing to produce organized hole structured foods that were friendly to the seniors with impaired chewing ability. In the second part, food texture softening technique was developed. High cellulose vegetable and meat were treated by enzymes under various processing conditions, and the texture of these food products was evaluated by the specification of UDF. In the third part, soybean functional foods for seniors were developed. In the fourth part, the relationship between the results of sensory test and analysis of physical property of soft foods was evaluated.
In development of neuroprotective product, citrus peel extract effectively increased the cell viability under the oxidative stress and glycation product-induced conditions. Xanthan gum and guar gum are found to be more suitable to enhance the thickness of Mandarin orange juice and orange juice. With its steady change of thickness without being affected by pH value and sugar, xanthan gum and guar gum are the better choice to adjust the viscosity without affecting the appearance and flavor of the product. Moreover, from the result of sensory evaluation on freeze-dried ice cream containing various fat contents, it is found that the freeze-dried ice cream with 13% fat content is the most favorable for the seniors because of its puffy texture and ease of mastication.
In food texture softening adjustive technology, applying enzyme with various processing methods to increase its impregnation rate and enhance the softening effect of the food materials. The degree of softening effect also varied with different food materials and their tissue structures. Ultrasound treatment not only help enzyme impregnate into the meat but also destroy the tissue structure, which increase the softening effect of food. When the rooting plant and the meat of livestock were treated with enzyme at over 0.5 and 1 % respectively, it could be soften to the hardness lower than 5 × 104 N/m2. The texture of the product is belong to the level two in the specification of UDF, and the food can be destroyed by the force between gum and tongue level. This result showed that the food softening degree is highly related to the enzyme activity and the impregnation rate.
Two bean products including functional tofu and tofu meatball with high fiber content were examined by single factor test to preliminary screen the range of variable and with orthogonal testing method to optimize of formula using textures as the indicators. The results showed that the developed products meet the texture and functional needs to the seniors with the formula of 1to 4 of solid and liquid soya milk, 1 to 4 of vegetables and fruits juice, 0.28 % of GDL, and pH 5.5. The tofu texture is belong to the level four in the specification of UDF. In high fiber content of tofu meatball, which is belong to the level three in the specification of UDF. The result suggests that sufficient protein content in the product is benefitial for the seniors to avoid sarcopenia and maintain the bodies function in healthy condition.
The functional tofu was selected to study the relation between sensory evaluation and instruments analysis on food with soft texture. The results showed that consumers regonized the products with generally soft in terms of texture, but they cannot distinguish the softness level of the products. Furthermore, Pearson coefficient of the texture of functional tofu also indicated that there is no obvious correlation between instruments analysis and sensory evaluation. The acceptability of functional tofu to consumers is between ' not like and not dislike' and ' slightly like', and the overall preference of products to consumers is highly related to tenderness and comfort.
In conclusion, the texture level using the instrumental texture measurement can be used as specifications and standards for food development, while the use of functional materials in Textured Modified Foods (TMF) can improve swallowing quality and nutrition ingestion, and prevent degeneration of body function and chronic diseases. Although the texture of the soft food tofu was not well correlated between instrumental analysis and sensory evaluation, consumers felt soft and tender in overall, indicating that there is still a relevant relationship between these two methods.
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Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系

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