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|標題:||不同蒸煮條件對馬鈴薯燉肉於12 ± 2℃儲藏期間品質之影響
Effect of different cooking conditions on the quality of stewed pork with potato during storage at 12± 2℃
|關鍵字:||低溫長時間烹調;馬鈴薯燉肉;軟質食品;low temperature-long time cooking;stewed pork with potato;softened food||摘要:||
真空低溫長時間烹煮法 (sous vide) 常被應用於烹煮各式肉類產品，許多研究顯示sous vide可降低烹煮過程中微生物汙染、降低因加熱造成的脂肪及蛋白質變性、減少水分、風味物質及熱敏感性營養素等的流失並可顯著提升肉類嫩度，然而卻不能長期儲存。故本試驗旨在 (1) 探討不同烹煮條件：高溫短時間 (HTSt，105℃-50、60 及70分鐘) 及低溫長時間 (LTLt，75℃-16、20、24小時) 對馬鈴薯燉肉感官品評之影響 (2) 尋找馬鈴薯燉肉經HTSt (105℃-50分鐘) 及LTLt (75℃-16小時) 處理於12± 2℃儲存8週之最佳展售時間。
試驗一結果顯示各處理組樣品感官品評中肉之色澤、風味、異味、蔬菜柔軟度及湯汁風味於組間皆無顯著差異，但柔軟度方面則低溫長時間處理組顯著較高溫短時間組為軟，其中以75-16處理組最軟，多汁性方面75-16及76-24處理組顯著較其他處理組為高，其中以75-24處理組有最高的多汁性分數，總接受度方面則分別以105-50及75-16組在HTSt處理組及LTLt處理組有最高值。試驗二則分別選擇使用HTSt-105-50及LTLt-75-16之樣品進行12± 2℃下儲藏8週之儲藏試驗，結果顯示pH值方面：HTSt處理組於儲藏期間皆維持穩定，而LTLt處理組則隨儲藏時間而顯著下降並於第4週後降至6.0以下；脂肪氧化方面，LTLt處理組之TBA值於儲藏期間呈現不穩定的變化 (1.2-3.4) ，而HTSt處理組於儲藏期間則呈現較穩定現象 (1.1-2.0) 。CD值方面，兩個組別於儲藏期間皆呈現穩定狀態。微生物方面，HTSt處理組之總生菌及乳酸菌均隨儲藏時間而上升但並未超過6 log CFU/g，而LTLt處理組於儲藏第1週之後偶爾會發生膨包現象。質地方面：兩個處理組之肉部分其截切值及咀嚼性於第0週均無顯著差異，但LTLt處理組其截切值則隨著儲藏時間的增加有顯著下降，而HTSt處理的肉則維持穩定狀態；感官品評方面，由於LTLt處理組於第2週時有產生膨包現象，因此其各項感官品評只至第1週後就截止，其肉之風味、蔬菜柔軟度及湯汁風味皆與HTSt處理組則無顯著差異；但肉之色澤、柔軟度及多汁性則較HTSt處理組為高；異味方面，LTLt處理組於1週後即有顯著上升；而HTSt處理組則於8週儲藏期間皆維持穩定狀態；總接受度方面，LTLt處理組之產品則因第2週膨包及異味顯著沒進行檢測，但其總接受度至第1週時依舊維持與第0週時相似的成績。而HTSt處理組則於儲藏試驗結束時皆維持在4.0以上。綜上所述，馬鈴薯燉肉產品若以LTLt處理 (75℃，16小時) 於12± 2℃儲藏僅可存放1週，而以HTSt處理 (105℃-50分鐘) 則不僅具有柔軟產品質地的效果且可延長其產品展售壽命至8週。因此，此技術及產品皆具有作為未來高齡化軟質食品發展之潛力。
Sous vide cooking had been frequently used for meat products. Many researches demonstrated that sous vide cooking is not only efficiently to reduce microbial contamination, fat and protein denature, loss of moisture, aromatic compounds and heat sensitive nutrients of foods, also significantly to promote softness of meat, however, these products could not be kept stable for long time during storage. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate effect of different cooking conditions: high temperature- short time (HTSt, 105℃-50, 60, 70 minutes) and low temperature-long time (sous vide) (LTLt, 75℃-16, 20, 24 hours) on sensory quality of stewed pork with potato (2) to look for an optimal shelf life for stewed pork with potato cooked by HTSt (105℃-50 minutes) and LTLt (75℃-16 hours) during storage at 12±2℃ for 8 weeks.
The results of the first experiment were showed that the color, flavor and off odor in sensory for meat were not significantly different among all groups, however, the softness of vegetables and flavor of soup in the product treated with LTLt showed significantly higher score than those of HTSt, especially the most soft texture was exhibited in 75-16 group. On the other hand, a better juiciness was found in both of 75-16 and 75-24 group and 75-24 had the highest score among all groups. In overall acceptance, the product of 75-16 and 105-50 had the highest score in HTSt and LTLt groups, individually. In the second experiment, the product of HTSt group-105-50 and LTLt group-75-16 were selected for storage at 12±2℃. The results showed that in pH value: HTSt group maintained stable during storage time, but HTSt group decreased significantly with storage time and the value were lower than 6.0 at 4th week. In the fat oxidation, LTLt group showed unstable in TBA value (1.2-3.4 unit), but HTSt group kept stable change of TBA during storage (1.1-2.0). In CD value, both of HTSt and LTLt group hold stable during storage. In microbial quality, total plate count and lactic acid bacteria of HTSt group increased with storage time but did not exceed 6 log CFU/g at the end of storage. Furthermore, although the microbial quality of LTLt group was as the same as that of HTSt, the expansion pack has been occured occasionally in LTLt group after the first week during storage. In texture, both of HTSt and LTLt group showed no significant difference on shear force and chewiness at the initial of storage. However, shear force of LTLt group decreased with storage time increasing but HTSt group maintained stable during storage. In sensory analysis, since LTLt group occurred expansion pack after the first week resulted that sensory were not performed after the 2nd week during storage. The flavor of meat as well as soup, and softness of vegetables of HTSt and LTLt group showed no significant difference between treatments but color, softness and juiciness of meat in LTLt group was higher than those of HTSt group during the same storage time. In off odor, the score of LTLt group increased significantly at 1st week but that of HTSt group remained stable during 8 weeks of storage. In overall acceptance: the score of LTLt group showed no significant difference between at week 0 and 1, however, the score of HTSt group maintained higher than 4.0 during the whole storage. In conclusion, according to the results of sensory, HTSt and LTLt were suitable for preparation of stewed pork with potato. Moreover, during storage at 12± 2℃ an optimal shelf life of stewed pork with potato cooked by LTSt or HTLt was 1 week and 8 weeks, separately. Therefore, stewed pork with potato cooked by HTLt could be potential as softened food for elder people in the future.
|Appears in Collections:||動物科學系|
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