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Artificial photoperiod regulates reproductive cycle and its effects on hatchability and fertility in breeder geese
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本試驗研究目的即為利用人工光照調控鵝隻繁殖生理，使其能夠在三年內歷經三次的繁殖週期。本次試驗所使用的人工光照計畫(artificial light；AL)沿用先前研究已最適化的光照週期，當鵝隻在20週齡時開始用此試驗人工光照週期調整其繁殖週期，預計其能在第一年的4月至9月開始第一季的產蛋週期，並在同年12月至隔年的5月為第二季的產蛋週期，第二年的7月至隔年的4月為第三季的產蛋週期。以模擬自然光照為控制組(natural light; NL)做比較，每隻公鵝配5隻母鵝，在變換光照的前期、中期以及後期分別採集血液，檢驗血漿中的內泌素含量。產蛋部分每日記錄其產蛋量並計算產蛋率，在兩個組別同時產蛋的時期收集種蛋，進行蛋品質的檢驗，並將蛋收集後進行孵化，探討其受精率以及孵化率的變化。
在一年半的試驗下，AL能夠調控其產蛋週期與產蛋率，使其能在非產蛋週期下(2017/03/13-2017/09/11)與(2017/12/25-2018/06/25)進行產蛋。AL組別平均每隻母鵝所產下的總蛋量顯著高於NL組別(54.61 vs. 42.29枚/隻)，然蛋品質以及孵化率並無顯著性差異。兩組別血漿中E2以及P4含量均在產蛋季節下有提高的趨勢。繁殖季節中，種蛋受精率AL組顯著性高於NL組別(84% vs. 74%)，將兩組別預期孵化出之雛鵝數量相做比較， AL組別顯著高於NL組別 (37.32 vs. 27.77隻)。由此結果，可定論利用人工光照週期調整的組別其繁殖性能高於一般自然光照週期的組別。因此我們可以由此推斷，此試驗的人工光照週期可促使種鵝在三年內完成三次的產蛋週期，並且可以提高其生殖性能，使其種鵝在三年內總產蛋量以及受精率提升。
Domestic geese have seasonal changes in reproductive behaviors and physiology. In Taiwan, White Roman geese are active in reproduction during autumn (September) to early spring (April) next year; namely seasonal breeding during short day length. In the commercial goose production, artificial photoschedule is often used to manipulate reproductive cycle and thereby controls gosling production. Under natural day length, goose breeders tend to exhibit much poor reproductive performances during the 3rd breeding season when compared to their previous 2 seasons, by which their age tend to exceed 3 years. Artificial photoperiod apparently can be used to improve reproductive efficacy and therefor lower the cost of gosling production.
The purpose of the study used artificial photoschedules to manipulate geese breeders to experience 3 breeding seasons within age of 3 years. The artificial photoschedules (AL) followed the ones optimized in our previous studies. Geese at age of 20 weeks received the photoschedule to impose their breeding seasons during Apr. to Sep. of the first year, Dec. to next Mar., and Jul. to Apr. in the 2nd year. A photoschedule simulating the natural day length served as a control (NL). In each group, ganders were distributed 1 vs. 5 females. At the beginning, middle and end of each change of light regimes, blood samples were collected for hormone analyses. Egg production was recorded and collected eggs were used for quality analysis and for artificial incubation to examine fertility and hatchability.
In first one and half years of experiment, AL regulates the onset of lay and following egg production in non-breeding seasons (2017/03/13-2017/09/11) and (2017/12/25-2018/06/25). Geese with AL had a higher egg yield than that of the NL group (54.61 vs. 42.29 eggs/geese). The egg quality and hatchability of eggs produced by AL geese during the non-laying season were not different with those of NL group. The plasma levels of E2 and P4 increased consistently with the time of egg laying duration. AL geeses also had a significantly higher fertility (74% vs. 84%) and production of goslings (37.32 vs. 27.77 goose) than those of NL group, suggesting that. AL has a better reproductive performance than that of the natural photoperiod group. Therefore, the artificial photoschedule apparently is a feasible method to impose geese breeder to lay three times within three years with a high egg reproduction and fertility.
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