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Molecular cloning and expression of chicken Cryptochrome 4
|關鍵字:||晝夜節律;Cryptochrome 4;雞;過度表達;小雞初始肝臟細胞;Circadian oscillator;Cryptochrome 4;Chicken;Overexpression;Chick primary hepatocytes||引用:|| Bell-Pedersen, D., V. M. Cassone, D. J. Earnest, S. S. Golden, P. E. Hardin, T. L. Thomas, and M. J. Zoran. 2005. Circadian rhythms from multiple oscillators: lessons from diverse organisms. Nat. Rev. Genet. 6:544-556.  Welsh, D.K., J.S. Takahashi, and S.A. Kay. 2010. Suprachiasmatic nucleus: cell autonomy and network properties. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 72:551-577.  Ebihara, S., and H. Kawamura. 1981. The role of the pineal organ and the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the control of circadian locomotor rhythms in the Java sparrow, Padda oryzivora. J. Comp. Physiol. 141:207-214.  Steele, C.T., B.D. Zivkovic, T. Siopes, and H. Underwood. 2003. Ocular clocks are tightly coupled and act as pacemakers in the circadian system of Japanese quail. Am. J. Phys. Regul. Integr. Comp. Phys. 284:R208-R218.  Takahashi, J., and M. Menaker. 1982. 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生物體之生存與其周圍環境密切相關，此能夠感覺並反應24小時的光照變化節奏，被稱為晝夜節律(circadian oscillation)。在鳥類，晝夜系統的中心部分由視交叉上核，視網膜和松果體組成；而周邊振盪器(peripheral oscillators)則存在於許多組織中，諸如腎臟、心臟與肝臟。當中樞與周邊震盪器相互連接便能使生物體內部有最佳相位關係並與外部環境同步(synchronization)。晝夜節律的分子機制是透過光照刺激去影響基因的轉錄(transcription)、轉譯(translation)、轉譯後修飾(post-translational modification)等作用帶動其下游因子產生正負回饋之相互作用，機制的核心因子有PER (Period)、CRY (Cryptochrome)、BMAL1 ( Brain and Muscle ARNT-Like 1)以及CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput)。相較於哺乳動物，鳥類表達特有Cry4，可作為藍光感受器或磁感機制受體(magnetoreceptors)。本試驗目的為成功選殖雞的CRY4基因，並轉染至小雞肝臟細胞(chick primary hepatocytes)，於不同光照模式下，以即時定量PCR(qRT-PCR)分析其24小時之間節律相關基因的表現脈動。定序結果與NCBI上公佈雞Cryptochrome4序列(XM_015298682.2)有100％符合，因此可確定有成功選殖CRY4基因。比較其基因24小時的變化，在all light處理下, CRY4 overexpression會壓抑BMAL1、CLOCK、SIRT1的波動性，但增強PER2、PER3、CRY1、CRY2、CRY4、PCC-1α、E4bp4波動性，在12L:12D處理中，CRY4 overexpression只會壓抑BAMl1、CLOCK、CRY1、CRY2，而其餘基因皆增強其波動性，最後在all dark處理下，會壓抑CLOCK、PCC-1α，其餘基因皆增強其波動性。另外，CRY4 overexpression處理下所造成的節律基因表現，在12L:12D處理組中，高峰皆出現在光照期間，推測光照與黑夜變化能活化CRY4進而調控下游基因表現。CRY4本身則是基因表現皆相當明顯，在三個光照組中，過度表達與控制組的高峰都相差6個小時。在三光照處理組中，all light處理組通常在大多時間點都會有高於其他2組的表達量。最後以西方免疫吸漬法(Western Blot)分析CRY4蛋白在細胞中的表達，結果顯示在做為正對照組的肝臟、視網膜、下視丘與CRY4 overexpression之3T3 fibroblasts cells中可以看到CRY4蛋白位於約61kDa，而對照組未經轉染3T3 fibroblasts cells，並未有蛋白表達，因此確認此抗體可以確實結合到目標蛋白。
The survival of organisms is closely related to their surroundings. They are capable to rhythmically sense and respond to the light-dark phases along the daily-24 h changes; namely circadian oscillation. In birds, the central part of the circadian system consists of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, retina, and the pineal gland. Peripheral oscillators are present in a variety of tissues such as the kidney, heart and liver. Central and peripheral oscillators are interconnected to achieve optimal phase relationships inside the organism and synchronization to external changes. The molecular mechanism of circadian rhythm is operated through the interaction of transcription, translation, and post-translational modification of genes inresponse to light and thereby regulate the interaction of positive and negative feedback of downstream factors. The core factors of the mechanism are: PER (Period), CRY (Cryptochrome), BMAL1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-Like 1) and CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput). In contrast to mammals, birds are characterized by a novel avian-specific CRY4 gene expression. CRYs have been found in a wide variety of living organisms and can function as blue light photoreceptors or magnoreceptors. The study amied to clone CRY4 gene from chickens and examine the effect of enforced overexpression of CRY4 in chick primary cells under different light modes on the daily pulsation of rhythm-related genes through qRT-PCR analysis. The sequence results of cloned chicken CRY4 suggested 100% similarity in comparison with the published chicken CRY4 sequence (XM_015298682.2) in Genbank, thus confirming the successful cloning of the CRY4 gene. In the pulsatile changes of circadian gene expressions, under all light treatment, CRY4 overexpression suppressed the daily pulsation of BMAL1, CLOCK, SIRT1 in primary chick hepatocytes, but enhanced the fluctuation of PER2, PER3,CRY1, CRY2, CRY4, PCC-1α, E4bp4, when compared to the control. In the 12L:12D mode, CRY4 overexpression only suppressed pulsatile changes of BAMl1, CLOCK, CRY1, and CRY2 expression, but promoted flucturations of the other circadian gene expressions. Finally, under all dark treatment, CLOCK and PCC-1α pulsation were suppressed and the pulsatile expression of other circadian genes was enhanced by CRY4 overexpression. In addition, under 12L:12D mode, all of the peak expression of circadian genes occurred in the pohotphase suggesting that CRY4 is activated by circadian light and dark change, which in turn regulates downstream gene expressions. Both control and cells overexpressing CRY4 exhibited rhythmic patterns of CRY4 expression with 6 hr interval under the three light modes. In the three light modes, the all light treatment group tended to promote circadian gene expression levels than the other two groups. In addition, an antiserum against a synthetic epitope of chicken CRY4 was elicited from rabbits and used for Western blot analysis to validate the expression of CRY4 protein. Results suggested that the CRY4 protein was located at approximately 61 kDa in the liver, retina, hypothalamus and 3T3 fibroblasts with CRY4 overexpression, whereas the negative control of 3T3 fibroblasts with vehicle transfection had no protein expression, confirming that this antibody specifically recognized the target protein.
The results showed that the full-length sequence of CRY4 was successfully cloned, enforced to express in chick primary hepatocytes. In the normal state, chick primary hepatocytes have their own rhythmic gene expression, and the overexpression of CRY4 had differential effects on the pulstation of circadian gene expressions. In addition, all light mode tended to increase the circadian gene expressions mostly along the time course as compared to the other light modes.
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