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A study on the production performance of country chicken breeder on floor system
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台灣商業紅羽土雞為台灣市面上主要的有色肉雞品種，但因長久以來，選拔性狀皆以體重為主，造成繁殖性能較不佳。為了改善紅羽土雞的繁殖性能，利用雜交優勢，將興大101品系雜交紅羽土雞的子代(簡稱為興大紅羽雜交品系)作為母系使用，此配種方式預期有效改善紅羽土雞的繁殖性能，達產蛋高峰週齡提前且產蛋高峰產蛋率提升。目前商業紅羽土種雞為籠飼系統，需花費較多時間人力來配種，且對於動物福祉有不良影響。歐盟提倡動物人道飼養管理，已在2012年廢止巴達利籠，使用平飼系統來飼養，但目前仍未知台灣商業土種雞是否適合平飼系統下。因此，本研究探討土種雞在平飼系統下的生產性能表現。實驗使用商業紅羽土雞為公雞，興大雜交品系為母系。平飼系統飼養17隻公雞和85隻母雞，籠飼系統飼養120隻母雞。生產性能以測量體重、產蛋率、蛋重和繁殖性能，並以 Welfare Quality® 的測量性狀來評估平飼系統的動物福祉。結果顯示，平飼系統下的母雞體重較重，平飼系統的開產日齡(115日)比籠飼系統(123日)較早且平飼(27週)的種雞比籠飼系統(31週)較早達到產蛋高峰，而平飼系統的蛋重高於籠飼系統。唯繁殖性能方面，55週齡和45週齡籠飼系統的受精率皆顯著高於平飼系統 (P<0.05)；55週齡籠飼系統的受精蛋孵化率亦顯著高於平飼系統 (P<0.05)。平飼系統母雞的動物福祉經過綜合評分結果為是可接受的。平飼系統商業土種雞在年長後的繁殖性能雖然低於籠飼系統，但這些問題有改善可能，因此以平飼飼養提升動物福祉並節省人力是未來可行的方向。
The commercial red-feather country chickens were the main breed of slow-growing chickens in Taiwan market. But the long term selection for body weight had resulted in poor reproductive performance. To improve the reproductive performance of the red-feather chickens, the hybrid chickens (NCHU-RED hybrids) of the NCHU-G101 strain mated with the red-feather chickens were used to be breeder hens. This mated method efficiently improved the reproductive performance of the red-feather chickens. It improved the age on the rate of lay peak of egg production earlier and the rate of lay peak of egg production higher. The feeding system was based on the cage system of commercial red-feather country breeder chickens. It needed to spent more manpower and time doing Artificial insemination and it had bad effort on the animal welfare of the breeders on the cage system. European Union promoted the animal habitat management. The battery cage had been prohibited to use on 2012. The chickens were fed on the floor system. But we didn't know the production performance of country breeder chickens on the floor system. The research is to investigate the production performance of country breeder chickens on the floor system. The research used the commercial red feather country chickens as cocks and the NCHU-RED hybrids as hens. Seventeen cocks and eighty-five hens were fed on the floor system. One hundred twenty hens were fed on the cage system. The measurements were included body weight, rate of egg production, egg weight and fertility. It also used Welfare Quality® to evaluate animal welfare on the floor system. Hens on the floor system had heavier body weight. The production age on the floor system (115 days) was earlier than on the cage system (123 days). It reached peak rate of egg production on the floor system earlier (27 weeks) than on the cage system (31 weeks). The result of the egg weight on the floor system was heavier than the cage system. The fertility of the cage system was significantly higher than the floor system on the age of 45 and 55 weeks (P<0.05). The hatchability of fertile eggs of the cage system was significantly higher than the floor system on the age of 55 weeks (P<0.05). Animal welfare had been comprehensively evaluated. The result was acceptable. The reproductive performance of the commercial country breeder chickens on cage system was better than on floor system. But the problem of the poor fertility performance by the older cock was possible improved. Therefore, it was possibly way to improve animal welfare and save the manpower by the floor system.
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