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Evaluation of emulsifying properties of milk fat globule membrane and its application to ice cream manufacture
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Wang. 2015. Composition and microstructure of colostrum and mature bovine milk fat globule membrane. Food Chem. 185: 362-370.||摘要:||
乳脂肪球膜（milk fat globule membranes；MFGM）為富含生物活性物質之三層磷脂結構，於乳汁中包覆於三酸甘油酯表面以形成乳脂肪球，使乳脂肪能均勻存於乳汁中。而乳脂肪球膜富含之生物活性物質，包括磷脂質與醣蛋白等，其中又以磷脂質被指出具乳化特性，故乳脂肪球膜為一具高機能性之乳原料。一般市售冰淇淋之脂肪含量超過10%，因此添加適當之乳化劑以避免油水相分離有其必要性，但近年來消費者逐漸重視健康及養身之觀念，因此以添加天然乳化劑以取代人工合成之冰淇淋逐漸成為未來市場之銷售趨勢。故本試驗旨在探討不同MFGM製備方法之乳化性質，與取代冰淇淋乳化劑對冰淇淋品質之影響，以期確立MFGM做為天然乳化劑之潛力。
本試驗中以檸檬酸鈉（sodium citrate；SC）及氫氧磷灰石（hydroxyapatite； HA）前處理，並通過微過濾（microfiltration）所得之MFGM，分別使用0.01%、0.1%、0.2%、0.5%及1.0%，並與脫脂乳粉（non-fat dry milk powder；NFDM）、酪乳粉（buttermilk powder；BTM）及僅添加去離子水之控制組(control；C)，使用10%之黃豆油進行乳化試驗。顯微鏡觀察結果顯示，乳化效果隨各處理組使用比例越高，有提升之趨勢，並以使用1.0%之乳脂肪球膜處理組具最小粒徑顆粒，具最佳乳化效果；冰淇淋質地結果顯示，以添加乳脂肪球膜做為天然乳化劑之冰淇淋組具最緩慢之融化速率，並以使用氫氧磷灰前處理所得乳脂肪球膜分離物組別之膨脹率顯著高於其他處理組，顯微結構圖以未使用乳化劑之組別具最大且密集之冰晶分布，並以乳脂肪球膜蛋白組別具小顆粒冰晶均勻分布表現；冰淇淋於儲藏六個月中之整體風味接受度與質地則以使用0.5% HA及SC皆與商業用乳化劑無顯著差異（p <0.05）。綜合以上，MFGM具一定之乳化效果，且效果隨使用之比例愈高而有提升之趨勢，並具作為冰淇淋天然乳化劑之潛力。
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is rich in biologically active substances, including phospholipids, glycoproteins and others, which in turn are characterized as having emulsifying properties of phospholipids. MFGM is known to be composed mainly of polar lipids and proteins which encloses the fat droplets in milk and contributes to stabilizing milk as an emulsion. Generally, the commercial ice cream has a high fat content of more than 10%. Therefore, it is necessary to add an appropriate emulsifier to avoid oil-water phase separation. Furthermore, in recent years, consumers have paid attention to the concept of health and natural food. So, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the emulsion properties of MFGM and its application to ice cream manufacture as a replacer for commercial emulsifier. The MFGM obtained from microfiltration with either sodium citrate (SC) or hydroxyapatite (HA) pretreatment. The emulsion properties of SC and HA (0.25%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0%), non-fat dry milk powder (NFDM), buttermilk powder (BTM), and deionized water (Control) were compared in a soy bean oil system. The micrograph showed that the emulsifying property was higher in the high concentration of all MFGM, where the 1.0% concentration of milk fat globule membrane treatment group with no matter SC or HA treatment showed the smallest particle size, indicated that the better emulsifying property of them. The texture evaluation of ice cream showed that the ice cream group with milk fat globule membrane as the natural emulsifier had the slowest melting rate, and the overrun of the HA group was significantly higher than that other treatment groups. The sensory evaluation of ice cream showed that the overall flavor acceptance and texture of the ice cream during storage for six months were shown in both HA and SC group, where there were not significantly different from commercial group (p <0.05). In summary, MFGM has a certainly emulsifying property, and has the potential for application as a natural emulsifier for ice cream.
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