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Influence of frozen storage duration on quality and sensory characteristics of different pork products
|關鍵字:||冷凍儲藏;品質特性;感官品評;frozen storage;meat quality;sensory characteristics||引用:||中國國家標準。1982。編號 : 1451。類號 : N6029. 經濟部中央標準局。 台灣優良食品發展協會。2016。TQF台灣冷凍食品工廠專則。TQF-CR15-001。 李秀與賴茲漢。1976。食品分析與檢驗。精華出版社 徐有財。1995。冷凍食品學 (修訂三版)。復文書局。台南，台灣。 陳明造，賴茲漢，許哲彰。2000。添加葡萄糖酸內酯與不同米飯類對肉品質特性和生物胺含量之影響。中國畜牧學會會誌。第29卷 第三期 255-264。 陳明造。1997。肉品加工理論與應用 (修訂版)。藝軒圖書出版社。台北，台灣。 Alonso, V., E. Muela, J. Tenas, J. B. Calanche, P. Roncalés and J. A. Beltrán. 2016. Changes in physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of pork following long-term frozen storage. European Food Research and Technology 242(12): 2119-2127. Alvarez, C., I. Couso and M. Tejada. 1999. Thermal gel degradation (Modori) in sardine surimi gels. Journal of Food Science 64(4): 633-637. Añón, M. C. and A. Calvelo. 1980. Freezing rate effects on the drip loss of frozen beef. Meat Science 4(1): 1-14. Barbin, D. F., G. ElMasry, D.-W. Sun and P. Allen. 2012. Predicting quality and sensory attributes of pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. 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冷凍儲藏是肉與肉製品較佳之保存方式之一，除了可以延緩微生物生長並延長儲藏期限外，適當保存時更可減緩食品品質或營養價值之劣變；然而肉品經過長時間冷凍後，仍可能受到部分物理化學作用影響，例如 : 較大之冰晶可能會破壞肌原纖維結構，解凍後導致更多失重產生而使得品質下降，包裝不佳的肉品也常會因為長時間冷凍儲藏導致凍燒 (freezer burn) 發生，造成肉品外觀及質地等不良之影響。本試驗旨在探討冷凍儲藏對豬肉產品包含細切產品 (絞肉與肉絲) 及完整肌肉產品 (里脊與前腿肉) 品質及感官特性之影響。
試驗中第一部分探討不同冷凍儲藏時間 (0、2、4、6、8及10個月) 豬絞肉及肉絲品質及感官特性之變化。結果顯示，隨著儲藏時間增加，樣品之水分含量及a*值皆顯著下降，解凍失重、揮發性鹽基態氮 (VBN) 及 2-硫巴比妥酸值 (TBA) 則顯著上升。喜好性感官品評方面，冷凍儲藏10個月之冷凍肉及解凍肉皆有異味產生，且外觀、氣味及總接受度相較於第0個月時顯著下降，熟肉部分隨著儲藏時間增加，兩組之異味及不良風味皆無顯著變化，雖然總接受度有顯著下降，但整體仍受到品評員接受。描述性感官品評方面，隨著儲藏時間增加，冷凍及解凍肉品之凍燒、脫水、異色及異味皆顯著上升，熟肉之多汁性及吞嚥滑順程度則隨著儲藏時間顯著下降。第二部分中探討不同冷凍儲藏時間 (0、3、6、9及12個月) 豬里脊及前腿肉品質及感官特性之變化。結果顯示，儲藏期間兩組樣品之 L*值及a*值皆無顯著變化，隨著儲藏時間增加，兩組之水分含量、保水性及截切值皆顯著下降，解凍失重及 VBN 值則顯著上升；里脊肉之TBA含量緩慢上升，滴水失重顯著上升。喜好性感官品評方面，儲藏12個月後，里脊肉及前腿肉之氣味及總接受度等部分品評項目有下降之趨勢，但整體仍受到品評者接受。描述性感官品評部分，冷凍肉及解凍肉品之凍燒、脫水、異色及異味於第12個月時顯著上升，熟肉之外觀、氣味、風味及質地等皆無顯著差異。綜上所述，10個月冷凍儲藏會對細切豬肉產品 (絞肉及肉絲) 品質造成些許不良之影響，且顯著降低喜好性及描述性品評之結果；12個月冷凍儲藏雖會降低完整肌肉產品 (里脊肉及前腿肉) 部分品質特性，但喜好性品評部分無顯著影響。
Frozen storage is one of the superior preservation methods for meat and meat products. In addition to deferring the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and extending shelf life, properly frozen storage can also reduce the decline in food quality and nutritive values. However, some biochemical reactions might still occur which might result in undesirable quality changes after long-term frozen storage. For example, ice crystals forming during frozen storage might destruct the structures of myofibrils and eventually leads to water migration and fluid loss after thawing. Freezer burn might also occur to the meat which is without appropriately packaging and frozen storage for a long period of time, thus leading to an undesirable appearance and quality reduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the quality characteristics and sensory attributes of pork product including comminuted products (ground pork and shredded pork) and whole-muscle products (loin and picnic shoulder) during frozen storage.
In experiment 1, changes in meat quality and sensory characteristics of ground meat and shredded pork during different frozen storage time (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months) were evaluated. The results show that the moisture content and a* values of samples decreased significantly with storage time, while the thawing loss, volatile base nitrogen (VBN) and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) increased significantly. For the hedonic sensory evaluation, the performances of appearance, smell, and overall acceptance in the frozen and thawed samples were decreased significantly probably because of some off-odor was detected after 10-month frozen storage; off-odors and off-flavors of cooked samples did not differ significantly, while the overall acceptance of samples decreased yet still were acceptable by the panel. For the descriptive sensory, freezer burn, dehydration, discoloration and off-odor increased significantly for the frozen and thawed samples, whereas juiciness and oily mouth coat decreased significantly with storage time for the cooked samples. In experiment 2, changes in the meat quality and sensory characteristics of loin and picnic shoulder during different frozen storage time (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) were evaluated. The results showed that L* values and a* values did not change significantly during storage. The moisture contents, water holding capacity and shear force value of samples decreased significantly, while the thawing losses and VBN values increased significantly during storage. During storage frozen storage, changes in the drip losses and TBA values of loins were increased significantly at the 12th month whereas no significant differences were observed for the picnic shoulder samples. Significant increases in drip losses of the loin samples were also observed. The hedonic sensory characteristics of appearance, odor and overall acceptance for the frozen, thawed and cooked loin and picnic shoulder samples decreased after frozen storage for 12 months yet were acceptable to the panelists. For the descriptive sensory evaluation, freezer burn, dehydration, discoloration and off-odor of the frozen and thawed samples occurred significantly after frozen storage for 12 months, while no significance differences were observed in the appearance, odor, flavor and texture characteristics of the cooked samples. In conclusion, qualities of comminuted pork products such as ground pork and shredded pork decreased after 10 months of frozen storage and thus decreased hedonic and descriptive sensory evaluation results. Some quality parameters of the whole muscle pork products such as loin and picnic shoulder might be influenced after frozen storage for 12 months, whereas no influence toward the hedonic sensory acceptance was observed.
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