Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98172
標題: 極樂鳥 (Kalanchoe beauverdii) 的性狀遺傳研究及其在長壽花育種之應用
Study of Botanical Genetics in Kalanchoe beauverdii and the Application for Kalanchoe Breeding
作者: 謝伯泓
Bo-Hong Sie
關鍵字: 極樂鳥花;長壽花;燈籠草屬;種間雜交;Kalanchoe beauverdii Hamet;Kalanchoe blossfeldiana;Kalanchoe;Interspecific Crossing
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摘要: 
本試驗使用燈籠草屬極樂鳥 (Kalanchoe beauverdii Hamet)、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草 (K. garambiensis Kudo)、K. nyikae Engl. 和K. ×richaudii,以及長壽花栽培品種'African Fall M'、'African Ruby'、'Clara Q2'、'Dakota'、'Gabby'、'Hayworth'、'Hurley'、'Lea Q2'、'Lena'、'Melanne Q2 '、'Yazmin'、 '桃花女' ('Peach Fairy')、珍珠 ('Pearl')。先進行花粉發芽率測定,然後進行種間雜交,並調查雜交後代之植株性狀,再分析其性狀之遺傳模式。
燈籠草屬物種普遍具有較高的花粉發芽率,長壽花栽培品種之花粉發芽率則較低;且部分品種 花粉發芽率下降了百分之50 %以上。長壽花栽培品種'African Ruby'、'Clara Q2'、'Dakota'、'Gabby'、'Hayworth'、'Hurley'、'Melanne Q2 '以及'珍珠'也都顯示出在不同日期採樣中的花粉,其發芽率有顯著差異。
燈籠草屬物種分別與極樂鳥雜交,雖然在使用K. nyikae、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草、K. ×richaudii作為母本均有80 %以上的結果率,且均有收穫到種子,僅有在K. ×richaudii作為母本才有得到雜交後代。
栽培品種長壽花分別與極樂鳥雜交僅'Gabby'、'桃花女'與'Yazmin'有得到雜交後代,雖然所有品種結果率都在90 % 以上,但果實內結種率皆低於1 %,在雜交組合'桃花女' × 極樂鳥之種子發芽率只有1.5 %;'Gabby ' × 極樂鳥組合之種子發芽率達8 %;'Yazmin'×極樂鳥組合之種子發芽率則為3 %。
栽培品種與極樂鳥雜交,子代植株的形態上介於雙親之間。極樂鳥具有深紫色的葉片以及較大的花瓣,明顯的表現在後代花朵的大小上。雜交後代PF × KB 107-4 花徑可達2.7 cm,此外PF × KB 107-1具有6枝的分枝性,顯示來自母本的遺傳。花色上因極樂鳥為灰藍色,因此雜交後代的花色受雙親所影響,在使用粉色的'桃花女'所有的後代皆呈現紫紅的色系,紅色花的'Gabby'的雜交後代皆呈現橘紅色系,但在使用白色花的'Yazmin'則後代為淡粉色花。所有的後代皆遺傳到極樂鳥深紫的色葉片,顯示紫色的葉片對於長壽花栽培種子代為顯性的表型。
在遺傳研究上,從K. ×richaudii與極樂鳥種間雜交子代植株形態表現評估,葉片形態的遺傳為中間型遺傳。花萼顏色為一對對偶基因控制,且綠色相對於紫色為顯性。花序生長位置,也是由一對顯性基因所控制的遺傳,頂生花序 (terminal inflorescence) 相對於腋生花序 (axillary inflorescen- ce) 為顯性。

Breedings of Kalanchoe by crossing Kalanchoe beauverdii, K. garambiensis, K. nyikae and K. ×richaudii with commercial varieties 'African Fall M, 'African Ruby', 'Clara Q2', 'Dakota', 'Gabby', 'Hayworth', 'Hurley', 'Lea Q2', 'Lena', 'Melanne Q2', 'Yazmin', 'Peach Fairy' and 'Pearl'. Pollen germination of the parents were tested before interspecific hybridizations were performed. Botanical traits of progenies were recorded and the genetic inheritance were analyzed.

In general, the species in Kalanchoe family had higher pollen germination rate, but they were low in the commercial varieties. Some plants also shown significant different between pollen sample dates. For example, the pollen germination rates for pollens sampled at Feb 23 of K. niykae and K. ×richaudii were found 50 % lower than those sampled at Jan 21. That were also true for commercial varieties'African Ruby', 'Clara Q2', 'Dakota', 'Gabby', 'Hayworth', 'Hurley', 'Melanne Q2' and 'Pearl'. The pollen germination rates changes with the pollen sample date.

Hybridization of species in Kalanchoe family crossed by K. beauverdii, we obtained over 80% fruit set from K. niykae, K. garambiensis, K. ×richaudii mother plants. But only seeds from K. ×richaudii germinated and grow..

Crosses of commercial cultivars with K. beauverdii obtained hybrid offspring only from 'Gabby', 'Peach Fairy' and 'Yazmin'. Although all combinations got 90 % higher fruit set, but no more than 1 % of them were fertile. For those fertile seeds, seed germination rates were low. Only 1.5 % seed germination rate for K. 'Peach Fairy' × K. beauverdii seeds, 8 % for K. blossfeldiana 'Gabby ' × K. beauverdii seeds, and 3 % for K. blossfeldiana 'Yazmin'× K. beauverdii seeds.

The botanical traits of progenies from the crosses between commercial Kalenchoe cultivars and K. beauverdii goes in between their parents. Plants of K. beauverdii have dark purple leaves and longer wider petals. The flower size shown to be a dominant inheritance. The hybrid progeny PF × KB 107-4 had flower diameter up to 2.67 cm, but the progeny PF × KB 107-1 was shown to be high branching habit with 6 branches which is inherited from mother plant. The flower color of K. beauverdii is blue gray, the inheritance of flower color in hybrid offspring are intermediate inheritance. Progenies from pink flower mother K. 'Peach Fairy' are purple reddish on flowers, and the flowers of descendants from red flower K. blossfeldiana 'Gabby' are red orange, the flowers of descendants from white flower K. blossfeldiana 'Yazmin' are light pink. All progenies inherited dark purple leaf color from K. beauverdii, it is a dominate trait for Kalenchoe cultivars.

Study the separation in progenies from K. ×richaudii × K. beauverdii , leaf type is an intermediate inheritance, sepal color is controlled by single gene, green is dominate over purple. Position of inflorescence is another single gene trait, terminal inflorescence is dominate over axillary inflorescence.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98172
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2021-08-22起公開。
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