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標題: 滲透預處理及熱風乾燥對鳳梨果乾品質的影響
Effects of Osmotic Pretreatment and Hot Air Drying on Quality of Drying Pineapple.
作者: 林敬恩
Jing-En Lin
關鍵字: 熱風乾燥;酵素活性;滲透脫水;Hot air drying;enzyme activity;osmotic dehydration
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近年來鳳梨年平均產量約在44萬公噸之間,且有逐漸增加之趨勢,雖然近5年外銷量有逐年增加之情形,但僅約年產量的5.5%,因此仍以內銷為主。鳳梨屬於熱帶水果不耐低溫貯存,長期貯藏在低溫下,易導致寒害現象,即內部褐化,嚴重影響消費者觀感。因此需要進一步加工以改善不耐長期貯存之問題。乾燥為最常用之加工方法,乾燥速率及感燥後品質為生產者加工利用及消費者決定購買之因素,因此本試驗分別進行不同溫度(45、55、65、75℃)及厚度(0.5、1.0、1.5、2.0 cm)的組合乾燥實驗。由試驗結果可以獲得,鳳梨採用65℃熱風乾燥能有效縮短乾燥時間至一天,在加工後有輕微褐變之現象,相較於65℃,以75℃加工有較差之外觀顏色,由於高溫或低溫長時加工有褐變之現象因此必須調查乾燥過程中褐變之原因。
為了瞭解酵素在不同溫度下之活性變化,分別將鳳梨果肉浸泡於40、50、60、70、80℃蒸餾水中水浴30分,隨後調查酵素活性。其酵素活性不論是POD 或是 PPO皆隨溫度增加而下降,在70℃以達相對低之活性。此外經由80℃高溫殺菁後,在置於75℃下乾燥,其外觀顏色仍呈現黑褐色,因此推斷鳳梨於熱風乾燥過程中褐化可能屬於非酵素褐化。
為減少褐化現象,於乾燥前需進行預處理,滲透脫水為最常用之預處理,藉由滲透過程阻隔氧氣,以防止酵素及非酵素性之反應,而保留乾燥品之外觀顏色,同時也有縮短乾燥時間之作用。本試驗先以不同蔗糖(黑糖、二號砂糖、冰糖、精緻砂糖)作為滲透劑,調查不同蔗糖對乾燥後外觀之影響,由試驗結果獲得以精製砂糖及冰糖有較佳之外觀顏色,考慮成本問題以精製砂糖作為後續滲透劑。滲透液濃度影響後續加工所需時間,因此本試驗以30°、40°、50°、60°、70°不同蔗糖濃度進行滲透脫水4小時,由試驗結果獲得以50%蔗糖溶液作為滲透液,在室溫下進行脫水4小時能有較佳之加工效益。由於糖於滲透過程中進入產品,導致食用品質不佳,因此本試驗另外添加不同添加劑2%食鹽、2%維他命C、0.75%SD、10%蜂蜜,以其增加風味並調查其對乾燥後外觀之影響。試驗結果可以獲得添加0.75%SD、10%蜂蜜及2%食鹽有較佳之外觀,在風味方面10 %蜂蜜作為鳳梨滲透預處理,能生產出食用品質較佳之鳳梨乾。由試驗結果可以獲得,以含有10%蜂蜜之蔗糖滲透液,於常溫下滲透脫水4小時,在於65℃熱風乾燥,可獲得較佳之乾燥外觀及食用品質。

In recent years, the average annual output of pineapple is about 440,000 metric tons, and there is a gradual increase. Although the sales volume has increased year by year in the past five years, it is only 5.5% of the annual output, so it is still mainly domestic sales. Pineapple is a tropical fruit that is not resistant to low temperature storage. Long-term storage at low temperatures can easily lead to cold damage, that is, internal browning, which seriously affects consumers' perception. Therefore, further processing is required to improve the problem of not being able to withstand long-term storage. Drying is the most commonly used processing method. The drying rate and the quality after drying are factors that the producers use and consumers decide to purchase. Therefore, the test is carried out at different temperatures (45, 55, 65, 75 ° C) and thick-
ness (0.5, respectively). Combined drying experiment of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 cm). It can be obtained from the test results. The hot air drying of pineapple at 65 °C can effectively shorten the drying time to one day, and it has a slight browning phenomenon after proc-
essing. Compared with 65 °C, it has a poor appearance color at 75 °C, due to high temperature or low temperature. Long-term processing has a browning phenomenon, so it is necessary to investigate the cause of browning during drying.
In order to understand the activity changes of the enzyme at different temperatures, the pineapple pulp was soaked in 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 ° C distilled water for 30 minutes, and then the enzyme activity was investigated. Its enzyme activity, whether it is POD or PPO, decreases with increasing temperature and reaches a relatively low activity at 70 °C. In addition, after killing the cyanine at a high temperature of 80 ° C, it is dried at 75 ° C, and its appearance color is still dark brown. Therefore, it is inferred that browning of pineapple during hot air drying may belong to non-enzymatic browning.
In order to reduce browning, pretreatment is required before drying, and osmotic dehydration is the most common pretreatment. Oxygen is blocked by the osmotic process to prevent enzymes and non-enzymatic reactions, while retaining the appe-
arance color of the dried product. Shorten the effect of drying time. In this experiment, different sucrose (black sugar, granulated sugar, rock sugar, fine granulated sugar) was used as a penetrating agent to investigate the effect of different sucrose on the appea-
rance after drying. From the test results, the refined granulated sugar and rock sugar have better appearance color, considering the cost problem. Refined sugar is used as a follow-up penetrant. The permeate concentration affects the time required for subse-
quent processing. Therefore, the test is carried out by osmotic dehydration at 30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70° different sucrose concentrations for 4 hours. From the test results, 50% sucrose solution is obtained as the permeate. Dewatering at room temperature for 4 hours provides better processing benefits. Because the sugar enters the product during the osmotic process, resulting in poor food quality, this experiment additionally adds different additives( 2% salt, 2% vitamin C, 0.75% SD and 10% honey) to increase the flavor and investigate impact of its at appearance after drying. The test results can be obtained by adding 0.75% SD, 10% honey and 2% salt to have a better appearance. In terms of flavor, 10% honey is used as an infiltration pretreatment of pineapple to produce a pineapple with better eating quality. It can be obtained from the test results, and the sucrose permeate containing 10% honey is permeated and dehydrated at room temperature for 4 hours, and dried by hot air at 65 ° C to obtain a better dry appearance and edible quality.
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