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Effects of Gibberellic Acid on Shelf-life and Quality of 'Tainung No. 17' Pineapple and Non-chemical Fungicide on Peduncle Rot of Pineapple Fruit
|關鍵字:||鳳梨;激勃酸;延緩轉色;成熟度;非化學殺菌劑;果軸腐爛;Pineapple;Gibberellic acid;Delay degreening;Maturiry;Non-chemical fungicide;Stem-end rot||引用:||王御風。2017。日治時期高屏地區鳳梨產業之發展。2016年第12屆南台灣社會發展學術研討會論文集 何謂「屏東學」？屏東研究的回顧與展望。p. 49-71。 范國慶。2002。數種鮮食品種鳳梨季節品質之研究。國立嘉義大學園藝學系碩士論文。嘉義：台灣。 周雅玲。2005。化學藥劑處理對鳳梨品質之影響。國立中興大學園藝學系碩士論文。台中：台灣。 林榮貴。台灣的鳳梨。行政院農委會。 官青杉、唐佳惠、李柔宜、蔡惠文。2018。鳳梨新品種「台農23號」簡介。農政與農情。331。p. 95-98。 姝莉。2011。採收成熟度和二氧化氯處理對'台農17號'鳳梨品質和貯藏之影響。國立嘉義大學園藝學系碩士論文。嘉義：台灣。 張清琴、官青杉。2001。鳳梨品種改良回顧及未來展望。台灣鳳梨品種改良與病蟲害管理研討會專刊。嘉義農業試驗分所編驗印。p. 1-14。 陳京城。2001。鳳梨果實生理劣變之可能原因。台灣鳳梨品種改良與病蟲害管理研討會專刊。p. 69-77。 黃基倬、陳思如、賴榮茂、蔣永正。2010。植物生長調節劑40% 勃激素A3 (gibberellic acid)水溶性粒劑對蓮霧果實發育之研究。中華民國雜草會刊。31：69-78。 劉富文。1995。園產品採後處理及貯藏技術。台灣省青果運銷合作社編印。 薛百祺。2007。貯藏溫度及採收方式對台農17號鳳梨果心褐變之研究。國立嘉義大學園藝學系碩士論文。嘉義：台灣。 蘇俊麟、陳京城。2008。採收後處理植物生長調節劑對台農17號金鑽鳳梨果實黑心劣變發生之影響。興大園藝。33(4)。p. 15-23。台中：台灣。 Abduliah, H. and M.A. Rohaya. 1983. The development of black heart disease in mauritius pineapple (ananas comosus cv. Mauritius) during storage at lower temperatures. MARDI Res. 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將'台農17號'鳳梨分別以綠熟果浸泡100 ppm GA3和1/2轉色果浸泡100及150 ppm GA3經15℃貯藏後於室溫櫥架期間發現綠熟果之轉色速度較對照組慢，而1/2轉色果於外觀表現與對照組無明顯差異。鳳梨以GA3處理後後，可滴定酸含量較對照組高，糖酸比較對照組低，其於品質之測定結果與對照組則無顯著差異。
將'台農17號'鳳梨果實以100 ppm GA3，浸泡1、3、5及7分鐘，果實於櫥架時果皮轉色至全黃所需天數為13、17、18及16天，顯示GA3延緩轉色的效果隨處理時間增加而增加。各處理組於櫥架壽命終點時分析果實品質發現，處理組間則無顯著差異。
綠熟之'台農17號'鳳梨分別浸泡0、25、50及100ppm GA3果實經15℃貯藏7天後於25℃進行櫥架模擬5天後除GA3處理之果實其果色皆較綠外，果實品質表現以可滴定酸含量顯著高於對組。GA3處理組之果皮轉色所需天數分別為14、16、20天，顯示延緩轉色的效果與濃度呈正相關，但果實失重率亦隨貯藏天數增加而上升，但其餘品質在處理組間無顯著差異。呼吸率及乙烯釋放率方面，在貯藏期間果實之呼吸率及乙烯釋放率對照組與GA3處理組皆無顯著差異，回溫後對照組之乙烯釋放率顯著增加，GA3處理組以100 ppm抑制效果最佳。呼吸率於回溫後皆較貯藏期間高，對照組與25 ppm GA 3並無顯著差異但兩者顯著高於50及100 ppm GA 3處理組。
貯藏溫度方面，將'台農17號'鳳梨先以100 ppm GA3浸泡後再於6、9、12及15℃貯藏1週及25℃櫥架5天，果實外觀均無寒害症狀，但櫥架5天後，6及9℃果肉發生嚴重黑心劣變，病害指數為5.4、5.2。12及15℃則出現輕微病徵，病害指數皆為1.6。
以10及12℃對浸泡100 ppm GA3的鳳梨貯藏4週及回溫5天後皆發現果實外觀皆無出現明顯寒害症狀，但內部皆出現嚴重黑心劣變的現象。果實硬度貯藏4週後以10℃較12℃高，但回溫後兩者並無顯著差異。其於品質在貯藏4週及回溫後皆無明顯差異。
本研究使用之非化學殺菌劑為酒精、石蠟及肉桂精油試驗對鳳梨果軸腐爛之影響，模擬條件為貯運7天及櫥架5天，試驗結果顯示70及95% 酒精、石蠟浸泡(dipping)與0.1 %肉桂精油複合石蠟處理皆能有效抑制櫥架期間鳳梨軸腐病之發生。單純施用0.1% 肉桂精油於櫥架其腐爛情形較對照組嚴重。
The purpose of this research is to get to know how gibberellic acid (GA3) affects pineapples(Ananas comosus). The method we carried out is testing how the shelf life and the quality of 'Tainung No. 17' change under several independent variables, including fruit maturity, stored temperature, immersing time and concentration, and, at the same time, observing the inhibitory effects of non-chemical agent on pineapple stem-end rot. The study is expected to result in improvement in the shelf life extension and fruit quality maintenance
Mature green 'Tainung No. 17' pineapple immersed 0(control) and 100 ppm GA3 for 5 min which rate of color changing is lower than control during room temperature (RT) for shelf life after stored at 15℃ for 7 days. 1/2 yellowing 'Tainung No. 17' pineapple immersed 0(control), 100 and 150 ppm GA3 for 5 min which rate of color changing is no different from control stored at 15℃ for 7 days and then shelf-life at RT. Both of mature green and 1/2 yellowing pineapple treated by GA3 its titratable acid (TA) is higher than control, and its total soluble solid / TA (TSS/TA ratio) is lower than control. But other quality of pineapple is no different from control.
Mature green 'Tainung No. 17' pineapple immersed 100 ppm GA3 for 1, 3, 5 and 7 min. They needed 13, 17, 18 and 16 days to ripening during shelf at 25℃. The result showed that the effect of GA3 on delaying color change was increasing as immersed time. At the end of shelf-life, fruit was no different from period treatment.
Mature green 'Tainung No. 17' pineapple immersed 0(control), 25, 50 and 100 ppm GA3 for 5 min ,then stored at 15℃ for 7 days and an additional 5 days at 25℃. All of GA3 treated fruit was greener than control and its TA was higher than control. 25, 50 and 100 ppm GA3 needed 14, 16 and 20 to ripening during shelf at 25℃. The result showed that the effect of GA3 on delaying color change was increasing by concentration. Besides, weight loss was increasing as concentration, the other fruit was no difference at the end of shelf-life.
Respiration rate and ethylene production were no different between 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm GA3 treatment during low temperature storage. Ethylene production of control kept increasing during shelf at 25℃. Ethylene production of those treated with GA3 were lower than control. 100 ppm GA3 treatment showed the best effect of inhibit ethylene production. Respiration rate of control and 25 ppm GA3 were higher than 50 and 100 ppm GA3 during shelf at 25℃.
'Tainung No. 17' pineapple immersed 100 ppm GA3 for 5 min before stored at 6, 9, 12 and 15℃ for storage experiment. There is no chilling injury symptom on the appearance of pineapple after stored at different temperature for 7 days and an additional at 25℃ for 5 days. Internal browning severely occurred in pineapple which after stored at 6 and 9℃ and an additional at 25℃ for 5 days ,and the index is 5.4, 5.2, respectively. In contrast to pineapple that stored at 12 and 15℃ only slight internal browning happened, and index is 1.6, 1.6, respectively.
Non-chemical fungicide used for pineapple stem-end rot in this study were alcholo, paraffin and cinnamldehyde oil. The storage condition was stored at 15℃ for 7 days and an additional 5 days for shelf. The result showed that 70 and 95% alcohol, dipping paraffin and 0.1 % cinnamaldehyde oil wax(cinnamldehyde oil + paraffin, CW) were effective for inhibiting the occurring stem-end rot, but 0.1 % cinnamaldehyde oil (CO) promoted stem-end rot happening.
In summary, gibberellic acid could delay color changing, but it will be affected by fruit maturity, concentration and immersion time.The effect of gibberellic acid on chilling injury needs further research to verify. 70% and 95% Alcohol, paraffin and cinnamaldehyde paraffin complex treatment could repress stem-end rot
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