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Study of low temperature influence on physiology and the biostimulants enhancing on chilling tolerance of sweet potato leaves (Ipomoea batatas L.)
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低溫逆境會造成葉用甘藷(Ipomoea batatas L.)於品質和產量上的嚴重傷害，葉片外觀出現萎凋、水浸狀、黃化和壞疽。本試驗之目的為選育耐低溫之品種、優良之抗寒藥劑，及預處理過氧化氫(H2O2)所誘導之耐低溫抗性，分析植株相關生理表現與耐低溫表現之相關性。
觀察五品種甘藷葉於黑暗6 ℃下0、3、5、7、9和15小時與回溫24和48小時期間之葉片寒害指數與復原指數，總寒害指數於'日本種'為7.31、'大葉種'為8.13和'台農71號'為6.75，'黃葉種'為14.44和'裂葉種'為12.22；總復原指數'日本種'為5.47、'大葉種'為3.00和'台農71號'為5.10，'黃葉種'為10.15和'裂葉種'為7.49。綜合寒害指數、復原指數葉綠素螢光與SPAD值，較耐寒品種為'日本種'、'大葉種'和'台農71號'，較不耐寒品種為'黃葉種'和'裂葉種'。'台農71號'處理15小時後回溫48小時(R 48 hr)之Fv/Fm顯著增加，於6 ℃下9小時和15小時之SOD活性皆顯著上升，'裂葉種'之MDA含量於6 ℃下9小時和15小時之變化百分率分別為279.4 %與324.6%，代表細胞膜嚴重受損。
施用生物刺激素(biostimulants)作為抗寒藥劑，於低溫前1小時噴施抗寒藥劑海藻精(seaweed extract)、腐植酸(humic acid)、黃腐酸(fulvic acid)和甲殼素(chitosan)於'日本種'葉片，置於黑暗6 ℃生長箱下9小時，以腐植酸稀釋50倍的處理有顯著較對照組和大部分處理組低的電解質滲漏率-0.7 %，且Fv/Fm之變化率上升2.07%。'日本種'以甲殼素50倍處理則是有最低的寒害指數和SPAD值之變化率，分別為2.33與6.75%。田間低溫下甲殼素50倍可顯著提高'日本種'和'台農71號'葉片之CAT和SOD活性，腐植酸50倍則可降低'台農71號'葉片之MDA含量。經自然界的冷馴化後，複方藥劑(海藻精1000倍、腐植酸200倍和甲殼素200倍)有加成的抗寒效果，表現在'日本種'和'台農71號'葉片之Fv/Fm值和MDA含量上，Fv/Fm值分別為0.848與0.853，MDA含量分別為16.77與13.76 μmol g-1 FW。
低溫下低光(日/夜溫為18/10℃，光強度為70 mmol m-2s-1，光週期12/12小時)對'台農71號'甘藷葉片造成的寒害症狀，初期為點狀黃化，接著為大面積黃化與葉緣黑褐色壞疽斑點。葉片寒害指數、電解質滲漏率與MDA含量顯著提高，Fv/Fm與CAT活性顯著下降。處理複方生物刺激素(海藻精1000倍、腐植酸200倍和甲殼素200倍)與0.5、5和50 mM的過氧化氫2小時後，置於低溫光線下24小時(日/夜溫為14/6℃，光強度為70 mmol m-2s-1，光週期10/14小時)。預處理複方的效果與過氧化氫(H2O2)相比較佳，有最低的MDA含量，最高的CAT和POD活性，其中POD與對照組顯著差異。過氧化氫(H2O2)的處理中以0.5 mM的效果較佳，特別是在抗氧化酵素活性的提升和MDA含量的下降。本試驗結果顯示葉用甘藷於低溫下之優良生理指標為Fv/Fm值、MDA含量和SOD活性。
Chilling stress causes great damages with regards to the quality and the yield of sweet potato leaves. The injured leaves appear wilted, water-soaked and yellow, with patches of necrosis. The aim of this experiment is to select chilling tolerance cultivars and identify the efficiencies of chilling-tolerance induced agents, as well as to study the chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The parameters correlated with chilling tolerance investigated in this study included the chilling injury index, recovery index, chlorophyll content of the leaves (measured with Soil-Plant Analyses Development [SPAD] device), chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), membrane damage (assessed by measurement of malondialdehyde [MDA] content and electrolyte leakage), antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT and SOD) and carbohydrates changes.
Five sweet potato cultivars were maintained at 6 ℃ in the dark for 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 hours, then subsequently kept at 25 ℃ for 24 and 48 hours to recover. The total chilling injury indices of 'Japanese', 'Big leaves', 'Tainung 71', 'Yellow leaves' and 'Cracked leaves' were 7.31, 8.13, 6.75, 14.44 and 12.22, respectively (smaller indices indicated that the chilling injuries were mild), while their total recovery indices were 5.47, 3.00, 5.10, 10.15, and 7.49, respectively. The results demonstreated that 'Japanese', 'Big leaves' and 'Tainung 71' exhibited high tolerances to chilling, 'Yellow leaves' and 'Cracked leaves' were sensitive to chilling. The significantly increase of Fv/Fm in 'Tainung 71' after a 48-hour recovery period (R 48 hr), and the plants maintained at 6 ℃ for 9 and 15 hours had higher SOD activities. The MDA percentage changes of 'Cracked leaves' maintained at 6 ℃ for 9 and 15 hours are 279.4 % and 324.6%, respectively, indicating that the cell membrane was severely damaged.
To examine the efficiency of chilling-tolerance induced agents, kinds of biostimulants were used in this study. The agents (seaweed extract, humic acid, fulvic acid, and chitosan)were sprayed on leaves of 'Japanese' sweet potato one hour before placing under 6 ℃ for 9 hours. Leaves treated with 1/50 diluted humic acid showed a significant change of -0.7 % in electrolyte leakage, in addition to a significant increase of 2.07% in Fv/Fm as compared with control. The effect of humic acid on electrolyte leakage was not only significantly lower than control, but also lower than other agents treatment in this study. Leaves treated with 1/50 diluted chitosan had the lowest chilling injury indices and the smallest changes in SPAD value percentage, 2.33 and 6.75%, respectively. Leaves of 'Japanese' and 'Tainung 71' in the field were treated with 1/50 diluted chitosan before cold current, which significantly increased the CAT and SOD activities under low temperature stress. Leaves of 'Tainung 71' treated with 1/50 diluted humic acid exhibited significant decrease on MDA contents. After cold acclimation, the mixture of multiple chilling-tolerance induced agents had a synergetic effect on inducing chilling tolerance in leaves of sweet potato 'Japanese' and 'Tainung 71', the Fv/Fm values were increased to 0.848 and 0.853, respectively, while the MDA contents were lowered to 16.77 and 13.76 μmol g-1 FW, respectively.
Low temperature and low light treatment (day/night, 18/10 ℃; photosynthetic photon flux density [PPFD], 70 mmol m-2s-1; light period, 12/12 hours) cause chilling injuries on leaves of sweet potato 'Tainung 71', with yellow spots then followed by large area of yellowing, and necrotic spots on the leaf margin. The treatment significantly increased the chilling injury indices, electrolyte leakage and MDA contents, and significantly decreased the Fv/Fm and CAT activities. Leaves were pretreated with mixture of multiple chilling-tolerance induced agents (seaweed extract 1/1000, humic acid 1/200 and chitosan 1/200) or with 0.5, 5, 50 mM H2O2 for 2 hours, then placed to low temperature and low light treatment (day/night, 14/6 ℃; PPFD, 70 mmol m-2s-1; light period, 10/14 hours). The results showed that the mixture of multiple chilling-tolerance induced agents had better anti-chilling effects than plants pretreated with H2O2, the former resulted in the lowest MDA contents, and the highest CAT and POD activities. POD activities showed significantly higher than control. Among the H2O2 treatments, plant treated with 0.5 mM H2O2 had the best effect, especially on increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and decreasing MDA contents. The results of this study suggested that the Fv/Fm, MDA content and SOD activity are good physiological indicator for the study of chilling tolerance of sweet potato leaves under chilling stress.
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