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標題: 大蒜廢棄物、黑蒜萃取液及不同鈣源對結球白菜生長發育之影響
Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Wastes, Black Garlic Extracts and Different Forms of Calcium on The Growth and Development of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis)
作者: 林宇容
Yu-Jung Lin
關鍵字: 大蒜廢棄物;頂燒病;葉面噴施鈣源;黑蒜萃取液;混合介質;結球白菜;garlic wastes;tipburn;folair application of calcium;balck garlic extracts;mix medium;Chinese cabbage
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結球白菜(Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis)為重要十字花科蔬菜,頂燒病為其常見生理障礙,前人研究指出其為缺鈣所造成,且發生時常併發軟腐病,嚴重影響蔬菜品質。目前防治方法以化學藥劑為主,但為求環境永續發展,使用天然資材與農業廢棄物資源再利用於防治備受重視。本研究應用大蒜廢棄物相關資材及外施鈣源之方式,探討其對內葉鈣吸收之表現,及減少結球白菜頂燒病發生之效果。
結球白菜各葉層營養分佈中,鉀、鈣、鎂及硼濃度隨葉層數增加而增加,磷、銅濃度則減少,氮、鐵及鋅濃度無顯著差異。罹患頂燒病之結球白菜內葉中氮、鈣、鉀、鎂及錳濃度皆顯著較未罹病組低,磷、硼及鋅濃度則較高,鉀濃度在兩者間無顯著差異。內葉中鈣濃度分析結果,罹病組較對照組減少1.7%。葉片噴施0.01 M氯化鈣、硫酸鈣及乳酸鈣試驗中,以0.01 M氯化鈣處理組之頂燒病罹病度與軟腐病球數皆最低。在葉片噴施鈣源對葉片鈣濃度無提升之效果,但氯化鈣處理可降低軟腐病之發生,而硫酸鈣及乳酸鈣處理則反之。

Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) is an important Crucifera vegetable. Tipburn is a commonly existed physiological disorder of Chinese cabbage, previous study suggested that tipburn is caused by calcium deficiency and frequently occurred with soft rot disease, seriously affects the quality of vegetable. The prevention methods of tipburn are mainly based on chemical agents, however, the sustainable development of environment is an important issue today, which caused more attention to the reuse of natural materials and agricultural waste resources to control tipburn. The objectives of this study are to utilize garlic waste materials and apply various calcium sources, and to investigate whether these treatment are effect on increasing the absorption of calcium in the inner leaves and reducing incidence of Chinese cabbage tipburn.
Analysis of nutrient distribution in different leaf layers of Chinese cabbage indicated that the concentrations of potassium, calcium, magnesium and boron increase with the order of leaf layers from inside, while the concentrations of phosphorus and copper showed opposite trend, furthermore, the concentrations of nitrogen, iron and zinc are not significantly different among different leaf layers. The concentrations of nitrogen, calcium, potassium, magnesium and manganese in the inner leaves of Chinese cabbage with tipburn were significantly lower than those without tipburn, while the concentrations of phosphorus, boron and zinc were higher but the concentration of potassium was not significantly different. Analysis of calcium concentration in the inner leaves showed the concentration in rickets was 1.7% lower than that of control. For different kinds of calcium source tested Chinese cabbage spray with 0.01M calcium chloride had both the lowest degree of tipburn and soft rot disease. External application of calcium had no effect on calcium concentration in leaves, but application of calcium chloride may reduce the occurrence of soft rot disease, while the treatment of calcium sulfate and calcium lactate had opposite effect.
Germination results obtained from germination tests conducted on substrates containing various mixing ratios of garlic waste indicated that none of the substrate tested shows promoting effect on germination rate of 'new 28 Chinese cabbage No. 2', 'Chinese cabbage No. 47' and 'Chinese cabbage No. 56' seeds, the germination rate decreases as the mixing ratio increases. In terms of seedling growth, a significant promoting effect were noticed in 'new 28 Chinese cabbage No. 2' when cultivated on the substrate with a mixing ratio of 10:1 (peat moss : garlic waste, v/v) and 'Chinese cabbage No. 56' cultivated on the substrate with a mixing ratio of 40:1. 'Chinese cabbage No. 47' transplants cultivated on the substrate with a mixing ratio of 10:1 exhibited most severe tipburn symptoms after transplanting to peat moss. Tipburn was less severe in 'Chinese cabbage No. 45' cultivated on garlic waste containing substrates relative to the control. Moreover, seedling growth of 'Chinese cabbage No. 45' was not inhibited when grown on the substrate with a mixing ratio of 10:1 and higher concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc were detected in various leaf layers compared to those grown on the rest substrates. While using the substrate with a mixing ratio of 10:1, the growth performance was best in 'new 28 Chinese cabbage No. 2' and 'Chinese cabbage No. 45', the seedling growth was enhanced, the tipburn symptom was reduced and the contents of macronutrients in leaves were increased. Results from application of black garlic extract indicated that seedling growth was promoted when irrigated with black garlic extract diluted 300 times, however, no growth promoting effect can be observed while irrigated after transplanting; furthermore, inhibitory growth effect was recorded while irrigated with higher concentrations of black garlic extract.
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2021-08-28起公開。
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