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Studies of Postharvest Handling Technology for Shelf-life Extension in 'Pei-Chiao' Banana (Musa spp.)
|關鍵字:||香蕉;貯藏溫度;熱水處理;乙烯;1-甲基環丙烯;可食性包膜;包裝;褐化;Banana;Storage temperature;Hot-water treatment;Ethylene treatment;1-methylcyclopropene;Edible coating;Packaging;Browning occurs||引用:||Ahvenainen, R. 1996. New approaches in improving the shelf life of minimally processed fruit and vegetables. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 7(6): 179-187. Ali, A., M.T.M. Muhammad, K. Sijam, and Y. Siddiqui. 2011. Effect of chitosan coatings on the physicochemical characteristics of Eksotika II papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit during cold storage. Food Chem. 124: 620-626. Amin, M. N. and M. M. Hossain. 2013. Reduction of postharvest loss and prolong the shelf-life of banana through hot water treatment. J. Chem. Eng. 27(1): 42- 47. Anon. 1973. Enzyme Nomenclature, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Baldwin, E.A. 1994. Edible coating for fresh fruits and vegetables: past, present and future. 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香蕉 (Musa spp., AAA Group, Cavendish Subgroup) 屬熱帶果樹，原生於東南亞，在多數國家中是廣泛食用的水果。然而，當香蕉後熟後容易變質，使得在室溫下的儲藏壽命變短 (約2~3天)，並造成果實軟化、失去香氣、褐化、腐爛以及微生物的生長。本研究目的為使用採收後處理技術，包含低溫貯藏、熱水處理、乙烯、1-MCP、可食用資材包膜和包裝處裡，以延長'北蕉'香蕉在後熟階段6天的櫥架壽命。低溫貯藏對香蕉櫥架品質之影響，結果顯示，在10和15℃的溫度下，可維持香蕉色澤、果實硬度和減少褐化的產生，但乙烯的生成和呼吸率較對照組低。10℃的處理中，果皮會出現寒害徵狀。在15℃溫度下，當香蕉回溫至室溫(25℃)1天後，會出現褐化現象。熱水處理對香蕉櫥架品質之影響，結果顯示，53和55℃的熱水浸泡5分鐘，香蕉果肉在櫥架第6天時顯著有較高的抗氧化能力(FRAP)。多酚氧化酶(PPO)和過氧化酶(POD)則些微被53和55℃的熱水處理所抑制。熱水處理對果實外觀品質的影響無顯著差異，然而，使用50和53℃的熱水處理，可顯著維持香蕉在櫥架的6天時的硬度。乙烯與1-MCP對香蕉櫥架壽命之影響，結果顯示，乙烯和1-MCP處理會在儲架第4天抑制乙烯高峰直到儲藏結束。兩者處理也會減少香蕉的失重並維持果實硬度。在另一方面，乙烯與1-MCP的處理對香蕉在櫥架階段的褐化現象，並無顯著抑制的效果。可食用的包膜試驗對已後熟香蕉櫥架壽命之影響，結果顯示包覆蘆薈凝膠1.5%和脂肪酸蔗醣脂500倍可以抑制乙烯與呼吸率，而包覆甲殼素0.5%則可以減少失重。此外，所有可食用的包覆處理與對照組相比，可以減緩褐化的發生。然而，這些包覆處理對果皮顏色、果實硬度和總可溶性糖與對照組無顯著差異。不同厚度之密封聚乙烯袋包裝對櫥架品質之影響，結果顯示，0.03, 0.04和0.08 mm的密封聚乙烯袋可延緩香蕉於後熟階段的果皮顏色、失重率和褐化指數。同時，可以在初始階段抑制呼吸率和乙烯的生成。
Banana (Musa spp., AAA Group, Cavendish Subgroup) is the most widely consumed fruit in many countries. Which is a tropical fruit and a native plants of Southeast Asia. Whereas, after ripening of banana fruit is a simple to deteriorate and a short life for storage (about 2-3 days) under room temperature. Those deterioration are brought to fruit softening, loss of aroma, browning occurs, decay and microorganism growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postharvest handling technology included low-temperature storage, hot-water treatment, the application of ethylene and 1-MCP, edible coating treatment and packaging treatment to extension shelf-life of 'Pei-Chiao' banana fruit in ripened stage for 6 days storage periods.
In the storage temperature was separated into 4 group at 10 ̊C, 15 ̊C, 20 ̊C, respectively, and room temperature (25±2 ̊C) was set for the control. In low-temperature (10 ̊C and 15 ̊C) were showed positive result by maintaining the coloration value, fruit firmness and browning occurs. Ethylene production and respiration rate were inhibited by low-temperature treatments (10 ̊C, 15 ̊C and 20 ̊C) when compared to control treatment. Whereas, in our study was found that in 10 °C treatment appearance in chilling injury symptoms on the peel. Furthermore, in 15 °C treatment was rapidly occurs in browning symptoms after transferred to 25 °C only 1 days storage.
Hot-water treatment, the banana fruit was dipped in difference temperature of hot-water (50, 53, 55 and water at room temperature 25±2 ̊C) for 5 minutes then stored at 25 ̊C for investigate. In 53 ̊C and 55 ̊C HWT treatments of the fruit pulp were significantly higher values of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) on day 6 of storage. Both of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity were slightly inhibited by 53 ̊C and 55 ̊C HWT treatments. In contrast, hot-water treatment had no significant difference to maintain in fruit quality. Whereas, in 50 ̊C and 53 ̊C HWT treatments were significantly to maintain in fruit firmness on day 6 of storage.
The application of ethylene and 1-MCP treatments were separated into 7 groups, the air for incubated was set to control, ethylene gas (5, 10 and 15 ppm) and 1-Methylcyclopropene (0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 gram) than incubated for 12 hours at 25 ̊C after that transferred to 25 ̊C to investigate. Results showed that ethylene and 1-MCP treatments, there were inhibited the ethylene peak on day 4 until the end of storage. According to in weight loss and fruit firmness of banana during ripening were retained by ethylene and 1-MCP treatments. Moreover, both of ethylene and 1-MCP treatments could suppressed the browning occurs in the peel of banana fruit on the initial storage period and provide the better results than control treatments.
For edible coating treatment, banana fruits at yellow ripening stage were dipped in Aloe vera gel 1.5%, chitosan 0.5%, chitosan 1%, Sugar ester 500X and water was set for the control, dipping for 5 minutes than and the fruits were placed in unseal polyethylene bags (0.03 mm) after that transferred to 25 ̊C to investigate. The results showed that Aloe vera gel 1.5% and Sugar ester 500X could inhibited on ethylene production and respiration rate as well as 0.5% chitosan was retained in weight loss. In addition, all of edible coating treatments had a positive result to retarded in browning occurs compared to control. Whereas, those of coating treatments were no significant different to maintain in peel color, fruit firmness and total soluble sugar.
The packaging thickness treatment was investigated by banana fruits were placed into difference thickness of polyethylene bags 0.03, 0.04, 0.08 mm (each treatment was seal) and unpacking was set for control after that transferred to 25 ̊C for investigate. Quality parameters including peel color, weight loss and browning index indicated that packaging treatment helped to delay banana fruit at ripened stage. Meanwhile, packaging treatments did not reduce both of ethylene concentration and carbon dioxide concentration whereas those of packaging treatments could be control internal gas by decreased oxygen (O2) and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) that is suitable technique for prolong shelf-life of commodity.
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