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Study on Prolonging the Storage Life of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Fruit
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'Taoyuan No. 1' is the major strawberry variety in Taiwan. The maturity stage of fruit at harvest in 'Taoyuan No. 1' is closely related to fruit weight and quality during storage. The fruits picked at earlier maturity stage had longer storage life and higher fruit firmness that are beneficial for later transportation. However, the fruit weight and total soluble solids decreased. Fruits picked at 40%-turn-red stage had the longest storage life, however, fruit weight and quality were significantly lower than those picked at 100%-turn-redstage. Results from this study suggested that 60% to 80%-turn-red stage are the better harvesting stages to prolong the storage life when fruit weight and quality are major concerns. The fruit weight at 60% to 80%-turn-red stage decreased 8% to 17% compared with that at 100%-turn-red stage, and the storage life increased 27% to 79%, respectively.
To lengthen storage life and reduce fruit decay of full-red strawberry fruits, edible fruit coating with 0.5% sucrose fatty acid ester, a kind of food additives, was found to be most suitable for the strawberry Taoyuan No. 1 in terms of weight loss, decay index and storage life. The strawberry fruit treated with the coating had higher fruit firmness, and the red color may be maintained. After storage, the CO2 concentration inside the coated fruit was significantly higher than that of the control fruit.
In order to find out the potencial cultivar with longer storage life, the storage characteristics of 10 strawberry genotypes were investigated. Our results indicated that calcium content in leave or fruits may not be used as the indicator for storage life. The genotype 'E0' showed significantly lower weight loss and decay index with the longest storage life, however, its fruit surface color, firmness, total soluble solids, sugar/acid ratio were significantly different from Taoyuan No. 1. The fruit quality of E0 did not match commercial standards, and thus E0 may not replace Taoyuan No. 1 directly. Therefore, the breeding program was conducted to improve the Taoyuan No. 1. Results from cytoflow ploidy analysis indicated that Taoyuan No. 1 and E0 belong to octoploid and hexaploid, respectively, and Taoyuan No. 1 should be used as the female parent and E0 as the male parent for a successful crossing. Two offspring lines, 'E03' and 'E05', were selected from the cross between Taoyuan No. 1 and E0. The storage life of E03 and E05 were 9.9 and 10.9 days, 27% and 39% longer than Taoyuan No. 1 (7.8 days), respectively. The fruit surface color of both lines were closer to Taoyuan No. 1 than that of E0. E03 had lower fruit weight, firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acid as compared to Taoyuan No. 1. E05 had no significant difference with Taoyuan No. 1 in terms of fruit size, weight, firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acid, and sugar/acid ratio. Results from fruit quality evaluation revealed that E05 may be considered as a new the potencial cultivar with similar fruit quality of Taoyuan No. 1 but longer storage life to be promoted to the production area.
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