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標題: 調查臺中市收容犬隻感染潛在性人畜共通RNA病毒情形, 2016-2018
Molecular surveillance of potentially zoonotic RNA viruses among sheltered dogs in Taichung, 2016-2018
作者: 陳亮鈞
Liang-Jun Chen
關鍵字: 收容所;RNA病毒;反轉錄聚合酶鏈反應;犬冠狀病毒;犬諾羅病毒;animal shelter;RNA viruses;RT-PCR;canine coronavirus;canine norovirus
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  鑒於現今尚沒有足夠的調查資料足以闡明臺灣動物收容處所內的RNA病毒性傳染病流行病學現況,本研究乃嘗試以臺中一所動物收容處所為調查對象。自2016年4月至2018年3月,對於該所內人道處置的犬隻採集眼、鼻、口腔、肛門拭子以及血液樣本,以多重反轉錄酶鏈反應(multiplex RT-PCR)檢測冠狀病毒科、諾羅病毒屬、A型流感病毒、副黏液病毒科、麗莎病毒屬及黃病毒科6大類病毒存在的情形。本研究挑選前述犬隻中的24頭犬隻做前測,檢測結果顯示除肛門拭子中有冠狀病毒及諾羅病毒陽性的反應外,其餘的樣本種類對於所有病毒種類皆呈現陰性結果,本研究遂將研究重點轉向分析肛門拭子樣本中病毒存在之情形。
  在總計147個肛門拭子樣本中,有46個(31.3%)呈冠狀病毒陽性,2個呈現諾羅病毒陽性(1.3%)。病毒陽性樣本經基因定序及親緣分析顯示,冠狀病毒陽性樣本中的病毒為犬冠狀病毒第一型(canine coronavirus type I, CCoV I)及第二型(CCoV II);而病諾羅毒陽性樣本中的病毒為genogroup 6型(norovirus GVI)。此外,CCoV I及II經本研究證明在犬隻有共感染的情形,然而仍不能排除兩型病毒已發生重組或在未來發生重組的可能性。在犬隻感染冠狀病毒危險因子分析方面,分析結果顯示犬隻入所天數及月均溫小於25℃是感染冠狀病毒可能的風險因子。綜合本研究的各項結果,臺中動物收容所內收容動物有被犬諾羅病毒及犬冠狀病毒第一型與第二型感染,且證據顯示該收容處所內冠狀病毒有循環感染的可能性,惟仍須進一步調查研究始能確認。

Animal shelters are facilities that house and care for stray animals, especially small, companion animals like dogs and cats. Because most animal shelters are overpopulated, one of the common problems they face is the presence of infectious diseases. Several novel viral pathogens were found in animal shelters during the past decade. Thus, animal shelters are a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases, which pose significant risk to healthy, rescued animals and more importantly, to shelter personnel.
 To date, the epidemiological condition of animal shelters in Taiwan remains unclear. This study attempts to explore the presence of viral infectious diseases in one of the animal shelters in Taichung City from April 2016 to March 2018. From 150 euthanized dogs, mainly for diseases and bad prognosis, the eyes/nasal/oral swab, anal swab and blood sample were taken. The presence of Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, Lyssavirus, norovirus and coronavirus were tested using multiplex RT-PCR. Samples of 24 dogs were selected for preliminary tests. Results show that all but some anal swab samples were negative for tested viruses, thus we focus on analyzing anal swabs.
Among total 147 anal swabs, 46 and 2 were tested coronavirus and norovirus positive respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicate presences of canine coronavirus type I, II (CCoV I, II) and norovirus GVI. Co-infections of CCoV I and II are confirmed and the possibility of virus recombination should be considered also. Factors found to significantly influence coronavirus prevalence were days in the shelter and months with mean temperature less than 25℃. This study supplies evidences that support the hypothesis of intra-shelter circulation of CCoV I and II, but advanced research is critical.
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