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標題: 有效的自嵌入認證水印用於圖像竄改檢測與恢復
Effective Self-Embedding Authentication Watermarking for Image Tampered Detection and Recovery
作者: 陳昭如
Zhao-Ru Chen
關鍵字: 影像認證技術;竄改檢測;脆弱型浮水印;Image authentication scheme;Tamper detection;Fragile watermarking method
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In recent years, with the rapid development of the Internet as well as image processing technology, digital images on smart phones can be easily modified. Thus, criminal image modification has skyrocketed. In this paper, we propose an effective self-embedding authentication watermarking scheme for tampered image detection and recovery. The proposed method is classified into block-wise and pixel-wise detections. In block-wise detection, the authentication information and the recovery information are generated from each block and its mean value, respectively. According to the size of a block, the number of the authentication information and recovery information are adjusted. When the tampered pixel is detected, the corresponding block is marked; therefore, if the size of the block is small, the false positive rate (FPR) will be low. In pixel-wise detection, when the tampered pixel is detected, only the corresponding pixel area is marked. Therefore, the FPR will be lower than that the block-wise detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective, and an accurate tamper detection and high-quality recovery can be realized even in highly tampered images.
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