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A study on high capacity reversible information hiding by extending pixel-value-ordering and prediction-error estimation
|關鍵字:||可逆式資訊隱藏;像素排序法;預測誤差;Reversible information hiding;Pixel value ordering;Prediction error||引用:|| F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson, and M.G. Kuhn, 'Information hiding – A survey,' Proceedings of the IEEE Special Issue on Protection of Multimedia Content, vol. 87, pp. 1062-1078, 1999.  C. K. Chan and L. M. Cheng, 'Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution,' Pattern Recognition, vol. 37, pp. 469-474, 2004.  D. Bouslimi,G. Coatrieux, M. Cozic and C. Roux, 'Data hiding in encrypted images based on predefined watermark embedding before encryption process,' Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol.47, pp. 263-270, 2016.  J. Tian, 'Reversible information embedding using a difference expansion,' IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890-896, 2003.  Z. Ni, Y.Q. Shi, N. Ansari, and W. Su, 'Reversible information hiding,' IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 16, no. 3,pp. 354-361, 2006.  P. Tsai, Y. C. Hu, and H. L. Yeh, 'Reversible image hiding scheme using predictive coding and histogram shifting,' Signal Processing, vol. 89, pp. 1129-1143, 2009.  X. Zhang, 'Reversible information hiding in encrypted images,' IEEE Signal Processing Letters. vol. 18, pp. 255–258, 2011.  W. Hong, T. Chen and H. Wu, 'An improved reversible information hiding in encrypted images using side match,' IEEE Signal Processing Letters. vol. 19, pp. 199–202, 2012.  X. Liao and C. Shu, 'Reversible information hiding in encrypted images based on absolute mean difference of multiple neighboring pixels,' Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation., vol. 28, pp. 21-27, 2015.  X. Li, J. Li, B. Li, and B. Yang, 'High-fidelity reversible information hiding scheme based on pixel-value-ordering and prediction-error expansion,' Signal Process., vol. 93, pp. 198-205, 2013.  F. Peng, X. Li, and B. Yang, 'Improved PVO-based reversible information hiding,' Digital Signal Processing, vol. 25, pp. 255-265, 2014.  B. Ou, X. L. Li, Y. Zhao, and R.R. Ni, 'Reversible information hiding using invariant pixel-value-ordering and prediction-error expansion,' Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 29, pp. 760-772, 2014.  W. He, K. Zhou, J. Cai, L. Wang and G. Xiong, 'Reversible information hiding using multi-pass pixel value ordering and prediction-error expansion,' Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 49, pp. 350-360, 2017.  Z. Zhao, H. Luo, Z. M. Lu, and J. S. Pan, 'Reversible information hiding based on multilevel histogram modification and sequential recovery,' AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 65, no.10, pp. 814-826, 2011.  C. C. Chang and T. C. Lu. 'A difference expansion oriented data hiding scheme for restoring the original host images,' Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1754-1766, 2006.  S. Agrawal and K. Manoj. 'Mean value based reversible information hiding in encrypted images,' Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, vol.130, pp. 922-934, 2017.  T. C. Lu, J. H. Wu, and C. C. Huang. 'Dual-image-based reversible information hiding method using center folding strategy,' Signal Processing, vol. 115, pp. 195-213, 2015.  H. Yao, C. Qin, Z. Tang, and Y. Tian. 'Improved dual-image reversible information hiding method using the selection strategy of shiftable pixels' coordinates with minimum distortion,' Signal Processing, vol. 135, pp. 26-35, 2017.  X. Qu and H. J. Kim. 'Pixel-based pixel value ordering predictor for high-fidelity reversible data hiding,' Signal Processing, vol. 111, pp.249-260, 2015.  O. Bo, X. Li, and J. Wang. 'Improved PVO-based reversible data hiding: A new implementation based on multiple histograms modification,' Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 38, pp. 328-339, 2016.  O. Bo, X. Li, and J. Wang. 'High-fidelity reversible data hiding based on pixel-value-ordering and pairwise prediction-error expansion.' Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 39, pp. 12-23, 2016.  W. He, J. Cai, K. Zhou, and G. Xiong, 'Efficient PVO-based reversible data hiding using multistage blocking and prediction accuracy matrix,' Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 46, pp. 58-69, 2017.||摘要:||
近年來資訊科技的快速發展，使用者利用網際網路進行傳輸資訊，但容易衍生出許多安全問題，可逆式資訊隱藏(Reversible information hiding, RIH)的技術可以避免上述問題，可將機密資訊藏入到原始影像形成偽裝影像，使其不輕易被肉眼的方式察覺，也能夠在機密資訊提取後將偽裝影像還原成原始影像，來達到機密資訊隱藏的目的。像素排序(Pixel Value Ordering, PVO)的可逆式資訊隱藏是針對整張影像做2×2區塊不重疊的切割，並將機密資訊藏在最大值及最小值中，每個區塊最多只能藏2個位元，雖然保持良好的影像品質，但藏量會受到限制，本研究延伸PVO藏量限制的問題，額外藏機密資訊在第二大值中，但為了避免第二大值藏完機密資訊後超過最大值，導致大小順序的改變，因此，會先在最大值藏完後(藏1或位移1)，再去藏第二大值，確保順序不變，根據本方法，每個區塊最多可以藏到3個位元，來提高藏量，實驗結果顯示，本方法藏量有進一步的提升，雖然影像品質會受到影響，在失真沒有太大的情況下能夠額外增加藏量，來達到藏量最大化。
Recently, the development of information technology has been grew quickly. Users use the Internet to transmit information, but it is easy to spawn many security issues Reversible information hiding (RIH) techniques can avoid these problems. RIH technology can hide confidential information into the original image become stego-image, which is not easily detected by naked eyes. RIH technology can also restore stego-image to original images after the confidential information is extracted to achieve the purpose of secret information hiding. The reversible information hiding of Pixel-Value-Ordering (PVO) is to makes 2×2 non-overlap blocks to embed confidential information in the minimum and maximum values. Each block can only embed up to 2 bits. Although image quality is maintained, the embedding capacity is limited. This study extends this method with additional hidden secret information in the second largest value. In order to avoid the second largest value is greater than the maximum value after embedding, it causes the change in value order. Therefore, after the maximum value is hidden (add 1 or shift 1), the second largest value is hidden to ensure that the order is not changed. According to the proposed method, each block can contain up to 3 bits to improve the embedding capacity. The experimental results show that the proposed method increase capacity, although the image quality is affected, if the distortion is not too large, it can increase the amount of storage to maximize the capacity.
|Appears in Collections:||資訊管理學系|
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