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標題: 乾旱對不同品系小麥幼苗地上部生長之影響
Effects of drought on the shoot growth of different wheat lines
作者: 陳俊&#x26D74
Chun-Chieh Chen
關鍵字: 小麥;乾旱;氧化逆境;活化氧族;抗氧化物;抗氧化酵素;wheat;drought;oxidative stress;ROS;antioxidant;antioxidant enzymes
近年來全球氣候變遷,各地出現極端氣候的頻率增加,小麥 (Triticum aestivum L.) 為世界主要糧食作物之一,本論文欲瞭解乾旱逆境對小麥之影響,將20個小麥品系處理四種不同的土壤水分含量,分別為100% 、80%、60%、40% 田間容水量 (field capacity, FC),觀察小麥幼苗出土率、地上部之株高、鮮重及乾重,結果顯示上述性狀皆受較低的FC所抑制,且不同品系間受影響程度不同,其中21965-JP及51732-JP屬較耐旱品系,臺中選2號 (Taichung selection 2, TCS 2) 及52109-JP屬中等耐旱,PI520107屬不耐旱品系。乾旱逆境造成小麥幼苗地上部相對水分含量 (relative water content, RWC) 下降,使氣孔關閉蒸散作用下降,進而造成葉面溫度升高,誘發H2O2累積產生氧化逆境,使MDA含量上升,乾旱同時也提升抗氧化酵素ascorbate peroxidase (APX)、catalase (CAT)、glutathione reductase (GR) 及superoxide dismutase (SOD) 之活性,並使抗氧化物ascorbic acid (ASC) 含量下降,脯胺酸 (proline) 含量則顯著增加。中度乾旱60% FC下,栽培種TCS 2相較於不耐旱之PI520107,具有較佳ASC-GSH cycle效率,得以清除過多H2O2,減緩氧化逆境之傷害;重度乾旱40% FC下,二品系之CAT活性皆提升,但仍不足以消弭氧化逆境伴隨之生長抑制。

In recent years, global climate change, the frequency of extreme climate has increased in various places. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the world's major food crops. This paper wants to understand the effects of drought stress on wheat, and treated 20 wheat lines with four different types, the soil moisture content was 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, field capacity (FC). Observed the emergence rate of wheat seedlings, plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of the shoots. The results showed that the above traits were inhibited by lower FC and has different degrees of influence among different lines. Among them, 21965-JP and 51732-JP are more drought-tolerant lines, Taichung selection 2 (TCS 2) and 52109-JP are moderately resistant. PI520107 is a drought-sensitive line. The water stress caused the relative water content (RWC) of the wheat seedlings to decrease, which caused the stomatal evapotranspiration to decrease, which led to the elevation of the leaf surface temperature, induced the accumulation of H2O2 to produce oxidative stress, increased the MDA content. When drought occurred, the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated, and the content of antioxidant ASC decreased, and the content of proline increased significantly. Under moderate drought 60% FC, TCS 2 has better ASC-GSH cycle efficiency than PI520107 which is drought-sensitive, which can remove excessive H2O2 and reduce the damage of oxidative stress. Under severe drought 40% FC, CAT activity of both lines were increased, but it is still not enough to eliminate the growth inhibition associated with oxidative stress.
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