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Integrated Driving and Adjustable Electronic Engine Braking for Electric Vehicles
|關鍵字:||占空比;脈衝寬度調變效應;電動載具;反向磁場剎車;可調整式剎車;Duty Cycle;Pulse Width Modulation;Electric Vehicles;Reverse Magnetic Brake;Adjustable Brake||引用:|| X. Xiao, Y. Li, M. Zhang and M. Li, 'A novel control strategy for brushless DC motor drive with low torque ripples,' Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 1660-1664, 2005.  Z. Y. Pan, F. L. Luo, 'Novel Resonant Pole Inverter for Brushless DC Motor Drive System,' IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, pp. 173-181, 2005.  Y. P. Yang, Y. P. Luh, and C. H. Cheung, 'Design and control of axial-flux brushless DC wheel motors for electric vehicles—Part I: multiobjective optimal design and analysis,' IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 40, pp. 1873-1882, 2004.  Richard Shemanske, 'Electronic Motor Braking,' IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, pp. 824-831, 1983.  A. L. Nicholas, 'Braking systems and their control architectures,' IET Professional Development Course on Electric Traction Systems, pp.1-11, 2014.  X. Nian, F. Peng, H. Zhang, 'Regenerative Braking System of Electric Vehicle Driven by Brushless DC Motor,' IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, pp.5798-5808, 2014.  P. Fajri, S. Lee, V. A. K. Prabhala and M. Ferdowsi, 'Modeling and Integration of Electric Vehicle Regenerative and Friction Braking for Motor/Dynamometer Test Bench Emulation,' IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, pp. 4264-4273, 2016.  G. Tzortzis, A. Amargianos, S. Piperidis, E. Koutroulis and N. C. Tsourveloudis, 'Development of a compact regenerative braking system for electric vehicles,' Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, Torremolinos, pp. 102-108, 2015.  K. Itani, A. D. Bernardinis, Z. K. and A. Jammal, 'Regenerative Braking Modeling, Control, and Simulation of a Hybrid Energy Storage System for an Electric Vehicle in Extreme Conditions,' IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, pp. 465-479, 2016.  O. C. Kivanc, O. Ustun, G.. Tosun, and R. N. Tuncay, 'On regenerative braking capability of BLDC motor,' Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Florence, pp. 1710-1715, 2016.  N. Luo, J. Jiang, and A. Yu, 'Research on the control strategy of the regenerative braking system,' International Conference on Mechatronics and Control, Harbin, pp. 2514-2517, 2014.  X. Zhang, D. Gohlich, and J. Li, 'Energy-Efficient Toque Allocation Design of Traction and Regenerative Braking for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles,' IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, pp. 285-295, 2018.  A. Fazeli, M. Zeinali, and A. Khajepour, 'Application of Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Regenerative Braking Torque Control,' IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, pp. 745-755, 2012.  M. Y. Yang and C. L. Lin, 'Design of Anti-lock Braking System for Electric Vehicle Using Sliding Mode and PI Control,' National Chung Hsing University,Master Thesis, pp. 1-73, 2012.  C. S. Lee and C. L. Lin, 'Design of An Integrated Braking and Driving Control System for Brushless DC Motors,' National Chung Hsing University, Master Thesis, 2015.  W. C. Lin, C. L. Lin, P. M. Hsu, and M. T. Wu, 'Realization of Anti-Lock Braking Strategy for Electric Scooters,' IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, pp. 2826-2833, 2014.  M. K. Liu, 'Integrated Driving-Braking Control Design for Electric Bikes,' Master Thesis, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 2016.  M. C. Hsieh and C. L. Lin, 'Design and Implementation of Integrated Braking and Driving Control System for Electric Bikes,' National Chung Hsing University, Master Thesis, 2015.  Y. C. Chen and C. L. Lin, 'Design of Integrated Driving/ABS Control for Electric Scooters,' National Chung Hsing University, Master Thesis, 2016.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLyGlQvsHF4  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJPbKYByciU  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9gyq6apxUY  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=na0UUuERMn8  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gXTb_PtQr8  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zy1KCjjSHA  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvGrzAMNa2c  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XvdwKAPhWE  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wEQGTuUqsBw  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnOwIfLAbSQ||摘要:||
最近，電動汽車（EV）已經在許多國家成為新一代的運輸工具。電動車輛逐漸取代汽油車輛，但目前電動車的煞車系統主要還是以傳統液壓輔助碟煞為主，並且剎車系統與驅動系統功能上是完全獨立的。本論文提出一個系統，可結合驅動與剎車為一體的控制器，我們將馬達轉動時產生的反電動勢當作剎車能量，然後改變變頻器開關的順序，以控制馬達的磁場，使馬達產生反向的阻力，達到快速制動。但對於高功率的電動汽車制動力道太大，容易導致零件損毀，故本研究運用開關元件雙通道調控脈衝寬度調變效應(Pulse Width Modulation; PWM)的占空比(Duty Cycle)，有效地調整剎車力道，並且搭配可調式的調節器，達到不錯的剎車控制以及降低開關元件的湧浪電壓與電流。我們已將此系統成功應用於電動機車和電動汽車，車輛測試引擎制動和一般制動的效果，並比較滑行和制動的時間。最後我們根據制動時間來分析制動效果。
Recently, electric vehicles (EVs) have become a new generation of transportation vehicles in many countries. Gasoline vehicles are gradually replaced by electric cars. However, the brake system is mainly traditional hydraulic auxiliary disc brake, and the braking system is independent with the driving system. This thesis proposes a system that can integrate driving and braking design in a compact module. We use the back electromotive force generated by the rotation of the motor as the braking energy, and then change the order of the inverter switches to generate the braking effect. The switches control the magnetic field of the motor so that the motor has a reverse resistance to achieve quickly braking. However, the braking force might be large to damage electric components of a large-powered electric vehicle. To resolve the problem, we uses the duty cycle of the pulse width modulation(PWM) effect to control the upper and lower arm switching mechanism. It adjusts the braking force in an efficient way. The system is equipped with an adjustable regulator to achieve braking control while avoiding surge voltage and surge current of the switching elements. We have successfully applied this design to an electric scooter and an electric car. We test engine braking and general braking, then compares the time of sliding and braking. Finally, we analyze the braking performance according to the braking time.
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