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Fabrication of three-dimensional micro-structures by laser direct synthesis and analysis of the thermal–fluids transport phenomena of the process
|關鍵字:||雷射直析技術;三維金屬微結構;雷射微積層製造;Laser-direct-synthesis and patterning;Three-dimensional metallic microstructure;Laser-additive micro-fabrication||引用:|| L. Austin, K. Manish, Integrated circuit packaging review with an emphasis on 3D packaging, Integration, The VLSI Journal, 60 (2018) 204-212.  P. Buffat, J. P. Borel, Size Effect on the Melting Temperature of Gold Particles, Physical Review A, 13(6) (1976) 2287-2298.  J. Wang, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, A. Piqué, Three-Dimensional Printing of Interconnects by Laser Direct-Write of Silver Nanopastes, Advanced Materials, 2(40) (2010) 4462-4466.  Y. K. Liu, M. T. Lee, Laser Direct Synthesis Patterning of Silver Nano/Microstructures on a Polymer Substrate, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6(16) (2014)14576-14582.  M. T. Lee, D. Lee, A. Sherry, C. P. Grigoropoulos, Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write, Micromechanics and Microengineering, 21(9), (2011) 095018.  S. B. Walker, J. A. Lewis, Reactive Silver Inks for Patterning High-Conductivity Features at Mild Temperatures, The American Chemical Society, 134(3) (2012) 1419-1421.  C. Ladd, J. H. So, J. Muth, M. D. Dickey, 3D Printing of Free Standing Liquid Metal Microstructures, Advanced Materials, 25(36) (2013) 5081-5085.  S. H. Ko, J. Chung, N. Hotz, K. H. Nam, C. P. Grigoropoulos, Metal nanoparticle direct inkjet printing for low-temperature 3D micro metal structure fabrication, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 20(12) (2010) 125010.  W. Chuang, D. Jingyan, Direct fabrication of high-resolution three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds using electrohydrodynamic hot jet plotting, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering,23(2) (2013) 025017.  C. Kullmann, C. S. Niklas, M. T. Lee, S. H. Ko, N. Hotz, C. P. Grigoropoulos, D. Poulikakos, 3D micro-structures by piezoelectric inkjet printing of gold nanofluids, Micromechanics and Microengineering, 22(5) (2012) 055022.  Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, S. Kawata, 3D Metallic Nanostructure Fabrication by Surfactant-Assisted Multiphoton-Induced Reduction, Small, 5(10) (2009) 1144-1148.  S. S. Mark A, S. Gunasekaran, J. A. Lewis, Laser-assisted direct ink writing of planar and 3D metal architectures, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(22) (2016) 6137.  J. Yeo, S. Hong, M. Wanit, Y. D. Suh, J. Lee, J. Kwon, S. H. Ko, Digital 3D Local Growth of Iron Oxide Micro- and Nanorods by Laser-Induced Photothermal Chemical Liquid Growth, Physical Chemistry C, 118(28) (2014) 15448-15454.  J. Yeo, S. Hong, G. Kim, H. Lee, Y. D. Suh, I. Park, C. P. Grigoropoulos, S. H. Ko, Laser-Induced Hydrothermal Growth of Heterogeneous Metal-Oxide Nanowire on Flexible Substrate by Laser Absorption Layer Design, ACS Nano, 9(6) (2015) 6059-6068.  A. Piqué, R. C. Y. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, S. A. Mathews, Laser 3D micro-manufacturing, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 49(22) (2016) 223001.  S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization, Optics Letters, 22(2) (1997) 132-134.  S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, Submicron stereolithography for the production of freely movable mechanisms by using single-photon polymerization, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 100(1) (2002) 70-76.  Y. Lu, M. Gazell, S. Gerry, S. Chen, R. Krishnendu, A digital micro-mirror device-based system for the microfabrication of complex, spatially patterned tissue engineering scaffolds, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 77(2) (2006) 396-405.  F. P. W. Melchels, J. Feijen, D. W. Grijpma, A review on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering, Biomaterials, 31(24) (2010) 6121-6130.  M. J. Wolf, T. Dretschkow, B. Wunderle, N. Jurgensen, G. Engelmann, O. Ehrmann, A. Uhlig, B. Michel, H. Reichl, High aspect ratio TSV copper filling with different seed layers, in 2008 58th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (2008) 563-570.  Z. Liang, L. Z. Quan, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Wang, W. M. Long, Y. H. Guo, S. Q. Wang, Y. Guo, W.Y. Liu, Materials, processing and reliability of low temperature bonding in 3D chip stacking, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 750 (2018) 980-995.  K. C. Rolle, Heat and Mass Transfer, SI EDITION, (2015).  C. P. Grigoropoulos, Transport in Laser Microfabrication: fundamentals and applications, Cambridge University Press, (2009).  李輝煌, 田口方法:品質設計的原理與實務, 高立, (2011).  Incropera, Introduction To Heat Transfer 5/e (Wiley), (2006) 802-803.  R. N. Kacker, E. S. Lagergren, J. J. Filliben, Taguchi's Orthogonal Arrays Are Classical Designs of Experiments, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 96(5) (1991) 577-591.||摘要:||
本研究利用雷射直析技術 (Laser direct synthesis and patterning, LDSP) 製作微米尺寸的三維導電結構。此技術相對於微機電製程的優點為能在常溫、常壓下進行，製程步驟簡易，並且製程溶液能回收再利用，具備綠色製程的優點。
In this study, laser direct synthesis and patterning (LDSP) was used to fabricate three-dimensional metallic microstructure. Compared to conventional microfabrication processes, the main advantage of this technology is that it can be carried out under normal temperature and pressure, and the process solution can be easily recycled and reused.
In a typical process, the process ionic solution containing absorbing material, is irradiated with laser directly to initiate the reduction reaction in the ionic solution near to the surface of the substrate. Microstructure is formed once the reaction temperature is reached in the solution. A continuous laser with a wavelength of 655 nm is used as a heating source. The substrate is immersed into a tank containing the reaction solution. The substrate is moved down by the high precision moving stage, and growing the metal microrod structure upward from the surface of the substrate. The microstructure is then successfully by pilling up on the fabricated structure layer.
In addition, a comprehensive investigation on the process parameters were set by an orthogonal table with the following parameters: laser power, stage moving speed, reaction solution mixing ratio, and the influence of process parameters on the results of the metal microstructures was discussed. One of the most important goal is to optimize the flatness, diameter and conductivity of the metal microstructures. Furthermore, the phenomenon near the heat source in the processing area is analyzed by COMSOL Multiphysics software including thermalfluid transport and liquid-solid phase change. The variation of the diameter corresponding to different process parameters were investigated and discussed. The simulation technology and model can be used in the future for optimizing process parameters.
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