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標題: 結合現地相反轉法與生物降解法進行底泥中疏水性有機污染物之整治
Coupling in situ phase-inversion emulsification with biodegradation for the effective remediation of sediments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene.
作者: 葉家瑋
Chia-Wei Yeh
關鍵字: 底泥整治;疏水性有機污染物;多氯聯苯;六氯苯;現地相反轉法;生物降解;Sediment remediation;Hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs);Polychlorinated biphenyls;Hexachlorobenzene;In situ phase inversion emulsification;Biodegradation
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底泥污染在台灣是一個嚴重環境問題,在過去二十年內,底泥中常被檢測到高濃度的多氯聯苯(Aroclor 1254)以及六氯苯(Hexachlorobenzene, HCB),尤其是位於台南市二仁溪底泥中之疏水性有機化合物的污染非常嚴重,包括多氯聯苯、多環芳香烴、多溴聯苯醚、六氯苯以及塑化劑的污染,然而這些疏水性有機化合物通常具有較高的辛醇—水分配係數(Kow)、較低生物降解特性並且容易累積在表層底泥導致底棲生物暴露其中,再經由食物鏈途徑,容易造成生物累積及形成生物放大效應,最終對生態系及人體健康造成危害。
本研究目的在結合現地相反轉法與生物降解法進行底泥中Aroclor 1254及HCB的整治,原構想操作方式是:(1)注入高溫之水在油中乳化液進入底泥孔隙中,直接接觸疏水性有機污染物,(2)藉高溫加速脫附與擴散之特性將污染物有效傳輸至油相中,(3)再注入常溫水造成降溫完成乳化液之相反轉而形成油在水中乳化液,藉由水利沖提快速有效地將污染物傳輸至底泥上方加以去除,(4)於完成回收後,可利用下方底泥中經過熱篩而佔優勢之產氫菌成為優勢菌群進行殘餘乳化液之發酵產氫,(5)上方底泥中之厭氧還原脫鹵菌群利用氫氣進行有效且持續之生物降解作用。
經實驗證實經單次相反轉回收後,可分別去除約62% 風化之Aroclor 1254及31%風化之六氯苯,經由生物降解作用後,可在70天內將殘餘的Aroclor 1254以及六氯苯有效去除,總去除率可達98%;然而PCR-DGGE結果顯示上下層之菌相與原構想截然不同,但次世代定序技術之定序結果則支持原實驗構想,結果顯示出底泥經過現地相反轉回收後其菌相有明顯較多產氫菌群及相關分解菌存在,可有效降解Aroclor 1254及HCB。本研究結果顯示結合現地相反轉法及生物降解法應用於大規模現地整具有高度可行性。

Sediment contamination in Taiwan is a critical environmental problem. The sediments in Er-Ren River (ERR) in the southern Taiwan is severely contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene, and phthalates. Among them, in the past two decades, PCBs have been detected at high levels. and HCB were detected most frequently. Due to their high Kow and low biodegradability, these HOCs easily accumulated in the surface sediment and accesable to benthic organisms. Thus, they were readily bioconcentrated and biomagnified through trophic levels. Consequently, through trophic relationship, these PCBs could affect ecosystem well-beings and human health. This research is aimed to couple in situ phase-inversion emulsification (ISPIE) and biodegradation for effective remediation of sediments contaminated by Aroclor 1254 and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). This study has shown that single phase-inverse emulsification operation can remove 62% of weathered Aroclor 1254 and 31% of weathered HCB. The the following biodegradation generally is decreasing. For weathered HCB and Aroclor1254, the overall removal could reach higher than 98% in 70 days. The results of PCR-DGGE and sequencing show that the microbial communities are quite different from our expectation. However, the microbial communities (e.g. thermophilic bacteria) in the sediment can effectively degrade Aroclor 1254 and HCB. These results strongly support that this new technology has high feasibility to be implemented in full-scale field remediation.
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