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dc.contributor.authorShi-Zhe Zhangen_US
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dc.description.abstract分析及量化含有複雜基質水樣中之重金屬是非常有挑戰性的,尤其是對於燃煤發電廠所產出的尾氣除硫((flue gas desulfurization, FGD)廢水的水樣更是困難,因為不僅背景干擾甚高且多,所需定量之濃度卻相當微量。然而,不久的將來,放流水標準中的燃煤發電廠FGD廢水放流水中砷、硒、鎘與汞將會加嚴至更低的濃度,在這情形下,在重金屬分析量化上的干擾則可能造成更明顯之誤差影響。為解決此種問題,本研究旨在探討對於FGD廢水中干擾重金屬量化的主要因子,以火焰式原子吸收光譜儀(FAAS)搭配氫化裝置分別對於模擬及真實廢水進行分析與探討。為了減少本研究進行實驗的數量,應用田口方法於實驗設計,將欲探討之造成干擾之離子或基團,在高中低不同濃度下之干擾進行探討,此外對於去除干擾之水樣之前處理測試,亦使用此田口方法設計並預測最適合之前處理程序。本研究中探討的因子由產學合作廠商提供之歷史數據中選出,分別為氨氮、硝酸鹽、硫酸鹽、氯鹽、硼、鈣、鈉、鎂等,選用L<sub>18</sub>(2<sup>1</sup>x3<sup>7</sup>)之田口直交表代入上述可能干擾因子,進行設計後分析其中砷、硒、鎘與汞的濃度。結果顯示主要的影響離子有硝酸鹽、硫酸鹽,為因應此結果,前處理方法則是選用四種前處理方法及三種水準帶入L<sub>9</sub>(3<sup>4</sup>)田口直交表以找出對於FGD廢水中最佳的前處理程序,在最佳前處理條件、品保品管(QA/QC)及偵測極限上的結果皆呈現一個相當可行之結果,本研究成果可提供相關的方法制訂單位、檢測單位及研究單位一重要參考的依據。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractHeavy metal quantification in complex matrix is a very challenging task, especially in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater from steam power generators. Since the discharge standards on arsenic and selenium will be further tightened to lower ppb levels, the interference can cause significant errors on quantification results. This study investigated the interference of major constituents in FGD wastewater on quantification of the aforementioned heavy metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) coupled with a hydride generator in both synthetic and real FGD wastewater samples. To minimize the numbers of experiments, Taguchi method was employed to determine the most influential ions or ligands based on the interfering extent as well as effective pretreatment steps that can reduce the interference. Eight major ions or ligands were chosen based on historical records, i.e., ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, sulfate, chloride, boron, calcium, sodium, and magnesium. An orthogonal table L<sub>18</sub>(2<sup>1</sup>x3<sup>7</sup>) was used to check the interfering strengths of these eight controlling factors on the quantification of arsenic and selenium. The result showed that influential factors are nitrate and sulfate. Furthermore, in this study, four different pretreatment steps with three different levels were tested using an orthogonal table L<sub>9</sub>(3<sup>4</sup>) to define an optimum pretreatment procedure to reduce the interference on quantifying real FGD wastewater samples. As a result, these pretreatment steps were determined and these heavy metals can be detected consistently in a satisfactory recovery range and all QA/QC parameters such as RSD and method detection limits are satisfactory.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents摘要 i Abstract ii 目錄 iii 圖目錄 vi 表目錄 viii 第一章 緒論 1 1-1 研究緣起 1 1-2 研究目的與內容 2 第二章 文獻回顧 4 2-1 FGD程序 4 2-1-1 FGD介紹 4 2-1-2 FGD廢水 5 2-1-3 未來加嚴項目 7 2-2 目標污染物介紹 8 2-2-1 砷之毒性特性介紹 9 2-2-2 鎘之毒性特性介紹 10 2-2-3 汞之毒性特性介紹 11 2-2-4 硒之毒性特性介紹 12 2-3 田口方法(Taguchi method) 13 2-3-1 田口直交表 14 2-3-2 田口直交數據分析 15 2-3-2-1 因子效應 15 2-4 現行樣品消化程序比較 18 第三章 材料與方法 22 3-1 研究架構 22 3-2 實驗藥品 23 3-3 實驗耗材 25 3-4 儀器設備 26 3-5 模擬水樣干擾試驗 27 3-6 真實水樣特性鑑定 31 3-7 真實水樣干擾試驗 32 3-8 前處理方法試驗 36 3-9 最佳化前處理測試 38 3-10 品保品管測試 40 第四章 結果與討論 41 4-1 模擬水樣干擾試驗 41 4-1-1 模擬水樣中砷之干擾結果 41 4-1-2 模擬水樣中鎘之干擾結果 44 4-1-3 模擬水樣中汞之干擾結果 46 4-1-4 模擬水樣中硒之干擾結果 48 4-1-5 模擬水樣小結 51 4-2 真實水樣特性鑑定 53 4-3 真實水樣干擾試驗 55 4-3-1 真實水樣中砷之干擾結果 55 4-3-2 真實水樣中鎘之干擾結果 57 4-3-3 真實水樣中汞之干擾結果 60 4-3-4 真實水樣中硒之干擾結果 62 4-3-5 真實水樣小結 65 4-4 前處理方法試驗 68 4-4-1 砷之前處理去干擾結果 68 4-4-2 鎘之前處理去干擾結果 70 4-4-3 汞之前處理去干擾結果 72 4-4-4 硒之前處理去干擾結果 72 4-4-5 前處理小結 75 4-5 前處理最佳操作條件測試 77 4-6 品保品管測試 78 第五章 結論與建議 80 5-1 結論 80 5-2 建議 81 參考文獻 82 附錄 85zh_TW
dc.subjectFlue gas desulfurizationen_US
dc.subjectHeavy metalen_US
dc.subjectAtomic absorption spectrometryen_US
dc.subjectTaguchi methoden_US
dc.titleMitigation of interference in heavy metal analysis in highly alkaline FGD wastewater by Taguchi methoden_US
dc.typethesis and dissertationen_US
item.openairetypethesis and dissertation-
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