Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98770
標題: 對抗或是對話?AI未來發展的挑戰與契機
Confrontation or Dialogue? The Challenges and Opportunities for AI's Future Development
作者: 杜長青
Chang-Ching Du
關鍵字: 安全化;人工智慧;AI民族主義;Securitization;Artificial Intelligence;AI Nationalism
Project: 全球政治評論, Issue 66, Page(s) 27-55
摘要: 
本文以美國官方已進入政府制度議程的人工智慧(Artificial Intelligence, AI)相關文件作為「國內層次」之分析文本,進行安全化的論述分析;分析單元部分,分別以「國家利益」、「國家安全」、「威脅來源」等字句類別,重新解析官方文本中的關鍵詞與重要概念,協助理解安全化語言的表述方式,以及倡議的對象與政策所望目標為何;至於在安全化論述的效果與影響上,則選取「國際層次」中與美國友好的國家,例如德法日等國對於美國官方文件中建構的AI安全化論述之反應,以了解區域其他國家是否在互動中肯認這樣的威脅觀點,進入區域安全複合體的合作架構並承擔相對的風險。研究發現上述文本或政治菁英中所討論的安全化(Securitization)架構,其「語言-行動」之論述建構順序為:美國政府資助包含「AI等STEM(Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, STEM)新興技術發展」、強調「技術突破以取得美國軍事、經濟和資訊優勢」、維持「美國本土防衛與國家安全」、以「確保美國國家利益」;而在AI議題倡導的角色上,前文分析可以發現已由早期的私人或民間企業自主性發展,透過美國國會「未來人工智慧法案」、總統行政辦公室「川普政府第一年科技政策重點」等官方文件,國家角色快速崛起,除了明確定位為國家戰略,並以政策工具來落實;此外,為了使其他國家認同這樣的安全化論述,並與美國形成安全聯盟,則進一步以中國經濟發展威脅作為載點,於文本中建構「中國傾其全力,積極獲取關鍵科技、智慧財產與發展新興高科技產業,以促進未來國家經濟發展及國防產業升級」、「世界各國(含美國)都是其目標,將威脅各國國家安全與利益」、「各國應與美國偕同一致加強合作,並積極防範中國的威脅」的論述。

This article uses the US official documents of artificial intelligence(AI) as the "domestic level" content to analyze the constructive process of "Securitization" discourse; The analysis units are divided into "national interest," "national security," and "the source of threats", to re-analyze the key words and important concepts in the official text, can help us to understand the way in which the sentence is expressed, and the object it desire to obtain in the very beginning; as for the outside effect of the "Securitization" discourse, the article select the American' allies as the "international level" units, such as Germany, France and Japan, to observer their policy stance and national attitude toward China's AI threats which was built by the US. It can help us to understand whether other countries in the region are willing to recognize such threats and step into the "regional security complex" and sharing relative risks with the US. This study found that the "Securitization" discourse has been constructed in the following order: US government to fund "the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, STEM) " technology"; to maintain its "military, economic and information advantages" from technological breakthroughs; to ensure US national security and national interests. In the role of advocator for AI issues, the early position of private enterprises has been taken rapidly by the rise of the country, and the level has been clearly defined as "National Strategy". Furthermore, in order to gain the like-minded recognition form other allies, the US further to post these threatening perspectives: "The aim of China's full efforts to actively acquire key technologies, intellectual property and develop emerging high-tech industry, is to promote its national economy and to upgrade national defense industry"; besides, China's rising will erode other countries interests and threat their national security; hence, all partners should strengthen the cooperation with the US, and actively prevent the threat from China.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98770
Appears in Collections:全球政治評論第66期

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