Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98773
標題: 國際貿易中的衛生安全標準:產業利益為先或消費者安全為重?
Sanitary Standards in International Trade: Protecting Consumers' Health or Defending Industry's Interests?
作者: 譚偉恩
Wei-En Tan
關鍵字: 農藥殘留容許量標準;食品衛生安全;國際貿易;產業因素;調和化;Standards for Pesticides Residue Limits;Food Sanitation and Safety;International Trade;Industry Factors;Harmonization
Project: 全球政治評論, Issue 66, Page(s) 117-160
摘要: 
無論從國家法律規範修訂之次數,或因進出口貿易而與它國實際發生磨擦的頻率來看,台灣農藥的殘留容許量標準在實質影響上均不亞於動物用藥的殘留容許量標準。然令人不解的是,在台灣的消費者鮮少關注前者;此一不甚合理的現象背後有亟待釐清之原因。透過質性比較分析與小樣本的個案研究,本文指出,除了消費者衛生安全這項法益的考量外,國內的產業因素和農藥殘留容許量標準之修正具有高度關聯性。易言之,國際貿易中的衛生安全標準在很多時候是基於經濟性的考量,而非總是將衛生安全作為優先目標。本文的個案研究不僅支持了此一觀點,更進一步發現,農藥殘留容許量安全標準的制定在台灣為出口方時,管制上經常居於「劣勢」;而在作為進口方時,雖不明顯處於「劣勢」,但也未能佔有「優勢」。總的來說,無論處於「劣勢」還是未能佔有「優勢」,都是政府在經濟因素考量下的政治選擇。

In Taiwan, the impact caused by residue limits for pesticides is not lower than standards for veterinary drug residue limits. This phenomenon has been confirmed from both a number of existing provisions altered and the frequency of trade friction with other countries in both exports and imports. However, why do Taiwan's consumers usually ignore residue limits for pesticides instead of veterinary drug residue limits? Is there a plausible explanation for such an abnormal consequence? This paper, based on qualitative comparative analysis and small-N studies, demonstrates that the industry factor at domestic level enjoys a high correlation with changes of residue limits. In other words, sanitary standards in international trade are very often influenced by economic concerns in the first place rather than food sanitation for consumers. The case studies backed up with evidence not only support the argument mentioned above, but also find that the regulations of safety standard for pesticide residue limits in Taiwan do not often get the upper hand compared to importing countries. This situation does not change to an opposite direction nonetheless but just become to indistinct disadvantage as Taiwan is an importing country. By and large, whether the regulations get 'the upper hand' or become 'disadvantaged', the safety standards in Taiwan are made subject to economic concerns in terms of political decision.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98773
Appears in Collections:全球政治評論第66期

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