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標題: 縱探語境—— 從張光宇《西遊漫記》探索二十世紀初中國美術史及大眾文化之發展與意義
Exploring Visual Languages: Zhang Guangyu's Cartoon Journey to the West in the Development of Chinese Art and Popular Culture in Early Twentieth-Century China
作者: 林素幸
Su-Hsing Lin
關鍵字: 張光宇;通俗藝術;珂弗羅皮斯;諷刺漫畫;墨西哥藝術;Zhang Guangyu;kitsch;Miguel Covarrubias;satirical cartoon;Mexcian art
Project: 興大人文學報, Issue 56, Page(s) 59-116
大眾文化是「現代性」最典型的產品之一,雖然大眾文化或通俗藝術很多是以印刷品的方式呈現,但也該因其美感的設計和深度的人文思想而得到應有的歷史地位。改編自吳承恩(約1505-1580)名著的《西遊漫記》是藝術家張光宇(1900-1964)於1945年在重慶所創作的經典作品,整部作品用彩色漫畫形式和白話文構築而成,通俗易懂,堪稱是典型的通俗藝術。張光宇早期在「新舞臺」戲院協助繪製舞台布景,並曾在中國兩大菸草公司廣告部擔任繪圖員,加上他在《世界畫報》、時代圖書公司擔任雜誌編輯等豐富的經驗,成就了他日後創作《西遊漫記》的養份。《西遊漫記》雖然沿用古代到西方取經的故事體裁,但描繪的內容直指1940 年代中國的政治與社會現況。這部連環漫畫其內容不只承襲了中國古代宮廷和民間的藝術,同時也受到墨西哥、古埃及和西方現代藝術等異國風格的影響,此外,還加入了飛艇、砲彈等現代物質文明與時事的元素。整部作品充滿了創新的圖像和高度的裝飾性,在近代中國繪畫史上可以說是前無古人的創作。藉由古典小說《西遊記》及墨西哥藝術等的運用或改變,張光宇巧妙且幽默地表現了其內在潛意識的情感和對時政的諷刺。《西遊漫記》不是對《西遊記》的簡單改編,而是一部有明確中心轉移、深思熟慮的改編與變種。《西遊漫記》不但因此為它在近代中國美術設計史上樹立了其經典的裝飾風格,更是將大眾文化和偉大傳統成功合體的典範。

Born in Jiangsu province in 1900, Zhang Guangyu (1900-1965) was the illustrator for the design department of the British and American Tobacco Company (BAT) in China, as well as the chief-editor of Shanghai Sketch. Zhang's best known work was the serial - Cartoon Journey to the West (1945). The serial includes sixty paintings and is rich in comic invention and also highly decorative. The cartoon is a representative work of popular culture; thus, the cartoon has become one of the important products of modernity. Cartoons, graphic designs, and advertisements are no less complex than any fine art works. In this paper, I utilize the serial to explore kitsch in modern China and the significant role of Cartoon Journey to the West in Chinese art history. Zhang's drawing styles were not only inspired by early Chinese art and the Peking opera, but were also partly influenced by the cultures of Mexico and ancient Egypt, as well as other cultures. Zhang engaged in a wide range of artistic experimentation to reinvigorate the nation's cultural climate. Cartoon Journey to the West is not just a simple alteration of literary works, but it is also an elaborate and successful mutation of popular culture and great traditions.
Appears in Collections:興大人文學報第56期

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