Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98929
標題: 象牙塔裡的謊言?
A Fairy Tale in an Ivory Tower?
作者: 張源泉
曾大千
楊振昇
Yuan-Chuan Chang
Dah-Chian Tseng
Chen-Sheng Yang
關鍵字: 德國高等教育;性別平等;場域理論;higher education in Germany;gender equality;field theory
Project: 教育科學期刊, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page(s) 31-55
摘要: 
本文探究大學之性別秩序;首先探討大學之性別秩序的理論基礎,從傳統哲學家的女性圖像為切入點,其以形式/質料關係比擬性別關係,背後隱藏了一種「統治-奴役的關係」,本文透過Kant哲學、Bourdieu的「慣習」與「資本理論」等視角評析前述性別關係,除了歸因於「階級慣習」外,特別指出「男性性別」的重要影響因素,此源自傳統根深蒂固的「男性統治」體制,而使得學術界的性別隔離成為趨勢,且又不斷地繁衍再製。而後,再進一步探究大學做為組織場域,並指出學術資本、經濟資本與政治資本厥為最重要的資本,三者之間的重要地位會發生變化、相互轉換;且在現今有關卓越學術的競爭中,由於歷史傳統的影響,非常容易受到性別因素的影響,因為學術在歷史上即為性別化機構。最後,本文以德國高等教育的發展做為範例,探究新公共管理主義改革對其性別秩序的影響,並指出從整體學術生涯發展歷程來看,德國與歐盟國家相較,二者隨著學術歷程之晉升,不同層級的男女比例差距雖都逐漸擴大,而德國之男/女失衡現象,無疑地遠甚於後者;但透過女性意識的覺醒以及政府的獎勵方案,德國女性學術人員的比例有上揚的趨勢。

In this paper I investigate the gender order in universities. After presenting the theoretical foundations of the concept of gender order as it relates to higher education, I discuss how philosophy has traditionally likened the gender relationship to the relationship between form and substance, and how this entails a concealed hierarchical relationship. I then use philosophy of Kant, Bourdieu's theories of habitus and capital to reveal how such traditional views rely on a class habitus which places men in a position of greater influence. Such male domination is deeply engrained in the very fabric of society, and in higher education has taken the form of gender segregation, a prominent trend in contemporary academia. Taking academia as an organizational field, I then point out the decisive importance of academic, economic, and political capital in higher education, and then explore the dynamic, interactive relationship which exists between these three forms of capital. In this section I also show how, inasmuch as academia has historically been a gendered institution, such gender bias naturally manifests in how universities strive to attain academic excellence. Finally, taking higher education in Germany as an example, afterwards, comparing Germany with the rest of the European Union, I show that while throughout the EU the proportion of women in academia steadily decreases as we survey the academic hierarchy in a bottom-to-top direction, the imbalance is far greater in Germany. Nonetheless, due to increasing government incentives and greater awareness of gender bias, the number female academics at German universities is beginning to increase.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/98929
Appears in Collections:教育科學期刊 第15卷 第1期

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