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Fiber Morphology and Pulping Potentials of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Leaf Parts from Iran
|關鍵字:||椰棗;硫酸鹽法製漿;卡巴值;C-E_1-D_1-E_2-D_2漂白;製漿適性;Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera);kraft pulping;kappa number;C-E_1-D_1-E_2-D_2 bleaching sequence;pulpability||Project:||林業研究季刊, Volume 38, Issue 1, Page(s) 33-45||摘要:||
本研究為探討利用農林廢棄物--伊朗產椰棗 (Phoenix dactylifera)之葉柄、葉軸及葉子等三部位之製漿適性，進行纖維型態、化學組成分析、製漿性、漂白性及紙漿品質等各項性質以評估做為製漿原料之適用性。纖維型態性質分析中，椰棗之葉柄、葉軸及葉子纖維長為介於1.19~1.21mm，纖維長寬比為介於37.1~57.5，因此，非常適宜應用於製漿用途。三部位之化學組成分與不同產地之椰棗、白千層 (Melaleuca leucadendra)、雲南石梓 (Gmelina arborea)、印尼混合闊葉樹材及37種南洋混合材之化學組成相較得知，全纖維素含量 (43.4~58.6%)偏低，木質素含量 (29~31.1%)相若，而醇苯抽出物含量 (6.4~12.9%)及灰分含量 (5.2~12.6%)均偏高，並非優良製漿材料。再者，進行硫酸鹽法製漿，各部位漿料之卡巴值20時收率為20.2~33.5%，與闊葉樹材相較，呈現稍低之現象。經蒸煮後之紙漿，經過C (氯化)-E_1 (鹼萃)-D_1 (二氧化氯)-E_2 (鹼萃)-D_2 (二氧化氯)等五段漂白程序後，葉柄及葉軸部位均可達到白度80 %ISO以上。各種椰棗漿強度性質顯示無論未漂漿及漂白漿均有相當優良強度性質，且強度指數顯示均較一般闊葉樹材紙漿有較佳之強度性質。綜合上述，伊朗所產椰棗各部位具有極佳纖維型態性質、漿料漂白性佳及手抄紙強度指數佳等優點，但紙漿收率稍低為其缺點，故要做為製漿材料，建議其漂白漿料可與其他物理性質較差之漿料樹種進行混抄，以提升性質，使其具有多元化應用價值。
This study investigated the use of agroforest waste materials, viz. petioles, rachis and leaves of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) for their pulpability. We've conducted fiber morphology, chemical analysis, pulping and bleaching experiments of the various parts to evaluate their suitability of serving as pulping raw materials. In fiber morphological analysis, the petiole, rachis, and leaf fibers of date palm were found to be between 1.19 and 1.21 mm, with slenderness ratio of 37.1 to 57.5. Thus, the fibers were deemed quite suitable for the pulping purpose. However, chemical analysis indicated that when compared to data palm from different sites, cajuput tree (Melaleuca leucadendra), bushbeech (Gmelina arborea), and the average compositions of 37 species of mixed Indonesian hardwoods that all 3 parts of date palm leaves. The holocellulose content of 43.4 to 58.6% were relatively low. Lignin content was 29 to 31.1%, comparable to the hardwoods. Whereas alcohol-benzene extractive of 6.4 to 12.9%, and ash content of 5.2 to 12.6% were relatively high. Thus, they are not ideal pulping materials. After kraft puling, pulp yields at kappa no. 20 were between 20.2 and 33.5%, the pulp yields were relatively low. The pulps when bleached with a C-E1- D1-E2-D2 sequence, the petiole and rachis pulps reached brightness of 80% ISO or more. The pulp strength properties indicated that date palm leaf part pulps, unbleached or bleached, had superior strength properties when compared with ordinary hardwood pulps. Summarizing the above, the Iranian date palm leaf parts had excellent fi ber morphologic characteristics, bleachability and pulp strength indices. However, the major drawback was the low pulp yields. Thus, in order to use them as pulping raw materials, the bleached pulps shall be blended with other pulpwood species with poorer pulp properties. This way, their multipurpose utilization practice may be realized.
|Appears in Collections:||林業研究季刊 第38卷 第01期|
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