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|標題:||Granular surface avalanching induced by drainage from a narrow silo||作者:||C.-Y. Hung
|關鍵字:||complex fluids;granular media||Project:||Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 856, 10 December 2018 , pp. 444-469||摘要:||
Using theory and experiments, we investigate granular surface avalanching due to material outflow from a narrow silo. The assumed silo geometry is a deep rectangular box, of moderate spanwise width and small gap thickness between smooth front and back walls. A small orifice deep below the free surface lets grains drain out at a constant rate. The resulting granular flows can therefore be assumed quasi-two-dimensional and quasi-steady over most of the surface descent history. To model these flows, we couple a kinematic model of deep granular flow with a dynamic model of shallow surface avalanching. We then compare the calculated flow fields with detailed particle tracking measurements, letting the silo ascend relative to the high-speed camera to increase spatial resolution. The results show that the avalanching surface shape and near-surface flow are controlled by the spanwise gradient in subsidence velocity, and how this gradient is in turn controlled by the height above orifice and the gap thickness. Whereas the deep flow pattern is rate independent, shallow avalanching is paced by the granular rheology.
|Appears in Collections:||水土保持學系|
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