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The Strategic Significance of the Constructing of Myanmar's Cross-Border Transportation Connectivity: View of Geo-Political-Economic Analysis
Yi Ching Lin
|關鍵字:||緬甸;跨境運輸連結;地緣政治經濟;地緣戰略;孟加拉灣區;Myanmar;cross-border transportation connectivity;Geo-political-economic;Geo-strategy;the Bay of Bengal Area||Project:||全球政治評論, Issue 69, Page(s) 125-127+129-167||摘要:||
緬甸位處絕佳的地理位置，接鄰中國、泰國、寮國、印度及孟加拉，為東協國家中唯一連結中國及印度兩大經濟體，可謂銜接南亞、東南亞及東亞交通及市場的樞紐地帶，掌控區域及全球運輸要道，並串連重要次區域經濟區塊如湄公河區域、孟加拉灣區（Bay of Bengal）等，而中國、南亞及東南亞多層次區域經濟圈亦在此疊合。而緬甸本身具備的豐沛的資源、勞力、交通位置及高經濟成長率，更成為外資挹注的熱點。要者，隨著孟加拉灣區成為大國競合的經濟及戰略場域，緬甸的地緣政治經濟價值更為顯著，位於南向通往孟加拉灣的通路，倘能完備貫穿東西的海陸運輸，將有機會開創麻六甲海峽以外的替代航運，並成為連結太平洋及印度洋的中樞。對於積極擴大對印度洋、孟加灣區影響力的中、印等國而言，緬甸形同門戶角色。2010年緬甸結束長達數十年的鎖國政策，採行經濟開放，長期以來被忽略的地緣戰略及經濟稟賦受到美國、中國、日本、印度等大國的重視，緬甸成為新一波大國權力競逐的場域。然而緬甸改革開放迄今近10年，國內基礎建設仍十分欠缺，全國面積遼闊，境內鐵路、公路等運輸建設更顯不足，遑論發展跨境區域連結。運輸流通的限制，降低緬甸境內外人物力的流動性（mobility）及連結性（connectivity），優異的地理位置及經濟稟賦便難以發揮作用，如此地緣戰略價值及區域整合功能僅流於概念層次，為能加速緬甸的地緣動能，東協、周邊國家積極投入改善緬甸運輸建設，境內運輸的改善便等同提升邊境、跨境及區域間交通便捷。本文透過地緣政治經濟的分析觀點，探討緬甸所具區域跨境聯結（regional cross-border connectivity）的特殊性與當前印太區域大國戰略競爭態勢及周邊國家安全利益息息相關，藉此可清楚說明周邊國家尤以中、印兩國特別熱中緬甸運輸建設，實然反映地緣利益的鄰近性及急迫性，另隱含區域強權競爭下的安全困境。
Myanmar enjoys being situated on a strategically-advantageous geographic location, as the biggest Indochina country adjacent to China, Thailand, Laos, India and Bangladesh and the only ASEAN country neighboring China and Indian, two mega economy. On the Asia map, Myanmar is just posited on the tri-junction belt linking South, Southeast and East Asia transportation and market, controlling the passage toward the Bay of Bengal and encompassing a variety of regional economic blocs overlapping, such as Grater Mekong Subregion and the Bay of Bengal. With the opening up of Myanmar to the world since 2010, the checked geopolitical-economic momentum has been released and gained a wide strategic attention and recognition. Especially, as the Bay of Bengal is transformed a new economic and strategic arena for Indo-pacific great powers, the strategic significance of Myanmar has been increasingly highlighted. As the gateway leading to the Bay, the establishment of a well-founded transportation infrastructure nationwide and on a regional scale is not only beneficial to this newly-developing country's national development, but also to the realization of regional connectivity, integration and prospect. More significantly, as the cost and risk of sailing on Malacca Strait, the lifeline for trade and energy, is rising, a free, open and connective Myanmar will bring the hope of creating alternative sea route to avoid the overdependence upon the Strait. However, the bright prospects promised by Myanmar's door-opening policy and inherent endowments will be shadowed for the lack of a sound transportation infrastructure of high connectivity, including roads, highways, rails and transits. The underdevelopment in physical connectivity will discourage the flows of people and goods inside and outside the gateway zone where Myanmar is posted. The role as Asia's new land bridge, regional hub and the gate way to the Bay which Myanmar wants to and is expected to play will be depreciated. Not merely ASEAN but also the surrounding countries, like China and India have been committed to the construction and improvement of cross-border transportation to enhance the effective physical connectivity and mobility that will mobilize this country's economic and strategic resources as a link and transit pivot. This essay explores why the construction of Myanmar's cross-border transportation matters along the particularity and significance of Geopolitics-economy. Further, it is analyzed, at the mercy of geostrategic interests and security dilemma, the two regional powers, China and India, are competing to invest much more on the Myanmar's physical connectivity for security, market, and influence.
|Appears in Collections:||全球政治評論第68期|
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