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標題: 緬甸憲政體制之探討-從翁山蘇姬任國務資政談起
On Discussion of the Constitutional System in Myanmar: A Case Study on Aung San Suu Kyi as the State Counsellor
作者: 呂嘉穎 
Jia-Ying Lyu 
Jenq-Rong Shyu 
關鍵字: 翁山蘇姬;半總統制;緬甸2008憲法;Aung San Suu Kyi;Semi-presidentialism;2008 Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Project: 全球政治評論, Issue 71, Page(s) 53-72 
緬甸從軍政府邁向人民可以直接表達政治好惡的「民主」,直至2015年議會選舉、2016年總統大選,才真正產生民主憲政的「雛形」。回顧緬甸歷任國家領導人,從1992年軍政府時期的「國家和平與發展委員會」(State Peace and Development Council,SPDC)主席、2011年由選舉人團選舉的總統,到2016年翁山蘇姬出任「國務資政」(State Counsellor)為止,皆可發現緬甸政府體制不斷更迭的跡象。然而,對緬甸屬於何種憲政體制,迄今仍存有一定的疑慮。緬甸2008憲法並未對「國務資政」一職,做出過多解釋,於該憲法中僅解釋總統、立法及相關軍方勢力所具備之權力,雖然從現況上可以發現,翁山蘇姬確實為緬甸實質上的領導人,但憲法中所定義的最高行政首長卻為總統。本文試圖從應然面、實然面兩大方向,解構緬甸現行總統制,在國務資政創設所造成的影響下,是否可能產生變化,並論述緬甸憲法規範面,所呈現與傳統認知上民主憲政的矛盾。

The political system in Myanmar has been evolving from military government to democracy which allows people to share their point of views on politics. The early form of democracy did exist after general election in 2015 and presidential election in 2016. Looking back Myanmar's history of electing leaders from the chairman of State Peace and Development Council in 1992, the president elected by electoral college in 2011 to Aung San Suu Kyi elected as State Counsellor in 2016, it clearly shows that the political system in Myanmar is continuously changing. Hence, there are wide concerns on which constitutional system Myanmar belongs in. In 2008 Constitution, there are not much of explanations on "State Counsellor," but relatively clear explanations on the power of the president, legislator and military. Although Aung San Suu Kyi is the real leader of Myanmar in practice, the constitution defines the president is the head of government. The study analyzes the existing Presidential System in Myanmar from normative and descriptive perspectives, and observes the possibility of any changes on the existing constitutional system because of setting up the position of "State Counsellor." In addition, the author discusses on the conflicts between traditional democracy and Myanmar's democracy from institutional perspective on Myanmar's constitution.
Appears in Collections:全球政治評論第71期

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