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標題: Characterization and Applications of ZrNx Thin Films Prepared by Dual Ion Beam Sputtering
作者: Lu, Chih-Jung
關鍵字: Zirconium Nitride;氮化鋯;Dual Ion Beam;Sputterung;Thin Films;Diffusion Barrier;雙離子束;濺鍍;薄膜;擴散阻礙層
出版社: 材料工程學研究所
Copper replaces aluminum as an advanced ULSI interconnect material because of its low electric resistivity and better electromigration resistance. It is essential to have a high performance diffusion barrier to suppress diffusion between copper and silicon substrate. Zirconium nitride (ZrN) exhibits good thermal and chemical stabilities, high melting point and hardness, and good corrosion resistance. It has been considered to be a potential material for a variety of applications in different fields.
In this study, ZrN thin films were deposited on Si substrate using a dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) system. Two processing parameters, i.e., change of argon flow rate and dual ion beam current, were manipulated during deposition. It is found that high Ar flow rate and Kaufman ion current can increase the deposition rate, as measured by α-Step and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology and thickness of the ZrN coatings are rather smooth and uniform. The average roughness, Ra, is smaller than 1 nm. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it is also observed that ZrN films have nanocrystalline structure with grain size of about 1~7 nm. The films have ZrN (111) preferred orientation as revealed by grazing incident angle X-ray diffraction (GIAXD). Analysis of the binding energy by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), resulted in the presence of ZrN phase, and the binding energy of Zr-N is increased with Ar flow rate and Kaufman ion current. In addition, the film composition was measured to be ZrNX with X was between 1.5~2 by Rutherford backscattering spectrometer (RBS) and Auger electron spectrometer (AES), i.e., nitrogen rich.
After annealing in vacuum, the multilayered samples Cu/ZrN/Si were characterized by AES and secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). It is obtained that the ZrN films produced by ion beam sputtering exhibit superior barrier properties upon annealing at 700℃. The results proved that ZrN can be used as a diffusion barrier for the Cu-Si system.

本研究係利用雙離子束濺鍍(DIBS)系統沉積氮化鋯薄膜於矽基材上,藉由改變氬氣流量與雙離子源電流等製程參數,對濺鍍後之薄膜進行分析。由表面形貌量測儀(α-Step)與原子力顯微鏡(AFM)量測發現,隨著氬氣流量與Kaufman離子源電流增加會提昇薄膜之沉積速率,薄膜表面平整,膜厚均勻,平均粗糙度(Ra)皆小於1 nm。經由穿透式電子顯微鏡(TEM)觀察薄膜微結構得知,所鍍氮化鋯薄膜為奈米級微晶結構,晶粒大小約1~7 nm。以低掠角X光繞射儀(GIAXD)分析得知薄膜之成長方向皆以ZrN(111)晶向為主,由化學分析電子儀(ESCA)分析結果證實有氮化鋯的鍵結存在,且隨著氬氣流量與Kaufman離子源電流增加其束縛能強度會增強,使得氮化鋯鍵結更加穩定。從拉塞福背向散射分析儀(RBS)及歐傑電子能譜儀(AES)分析可知所鍍薄膜成份為ZrNX,且X值介於1.5~2之間,為一富氮之氮化鋯薄膜。
Appears in Collections:材料科學與工程學系

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